Chapter 51: Animal Behavior
Chapter 51: Animal Behavior BYS 120
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amelia Notetaker on Tuesday December 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BYS 120 at University of Alabama - Huntsville taught by Dr. Luciano Matzkin in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biological Sciences at University of Alabama - Huntsville.
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Date Created: 12/08/15
Chapter 51 Lecture Notes Animal behavior o Can be influenced by stimuli o Fixed action plan: sequence of unlearned, innate behaviors that is unchanged Once initiated it is carried (usually) to completion o A fixed action pattern is triggered by external cue known as a sign stimulus Fixed action pattern o In male sticklebacks the stimulus for attack behavior is the red underbelly of an intruder o When presented with unrealistic models, the attack behavior occurs as long as some red in present Migrating behavior o Regular, long distance change in location o Environmental cues can trigger movement in particular direction o Animals can orient themselves Position of the sun and circadian clock Stars Earth's magnetic field Drosephila melonagaster courtship o Male identifies female of the same species and orients himself towards her Chemical communication: he smells a female's chemicals in the air Visual communication: he sees the female and orients his body towards her o Male alerts the female of his presence Tactile communication: he taps the female with foreleg Chemical communication: he chemically confirms the female's identity o Male produces courtship song to inform female of his species Auditory communication: extends and vibrates wings If all 3 steps are successful, female allows male to calpulate Honey bee communication o Show complex communication with symbolic language o Bee returning from field performs dance to convey information about distance and direction of a food source Pheromones use in behavior o Many animals communicate through odors emit chemical substances Mating Honeybee queen pheromones affect the development and behavior of workers and drones Fright response among fish Fixed behavior o Innate behavior: developmentally fixed and doesn't vary among individuals o Some behaviors are influenced by environment o cross-fostering study: places the young from 1 species in the care of adults from another species California mice and white footed mice Learning o Modification of behavior based on specific experiences Imprinting (learned) o Behavior that included learning and innate component and is generally irreversible o Distinguished from other learning by a sensitive period o Sensitive period: limited development phase that is only the time when certain learning takes place o Konrad Lorenz showed that when baby geese spent the first few hours of life with him they imprinted on him as their parent Spatial learning o Based on experiences with the spatial structure of environment Associates location with land marks o Animals build cognitive maps Representation of spatial relationships between objects in its surroundings Associative learning o Animals associate a feature of environment with another Operant conditioning: blue jay eats a monarch because he doesn't know they taste bad Classical conditioning: blue screen popping up and going to get your clicker, Pavlov's dogs Cognition o Process of knowing that may include awareness, reasoning, recollection, and judgement Problem solving o Process of devising a strategy to overcome an obstacle Development of behavior o Occurs in distinct stages Songs in many birds Social learning o Learned through observation of others and form the roots of culture o Culture: spectrum of beliefs, values, ect. Many gross insects are brightly colored. What type of behavior does this utilize? o Associative learning Evolution of behavior o Foraging: food obtaining behavior includes recognizing, searching for, capturing, and eating food items o Natural selection will shape these behaviors to enhance the efficiency of feeding, hence fitness o In D. Melongaster Gene foraging has 2 alleles Rover ( for R) Sitter (for S) Flies for R spend more time foraging while for S doesn't Selected flies at either high or low larval density Low density population: high frequency of S High density population: high frequency of R A male 3-spined stickleback attacks males close to its nesting territory. Why? o Decreases the chance that the eggs laid in his territory isn't fertilized by another male Mating behavior o Shaped by the mating system o Promiscuous: no strong pair bonds or lasting relationships o Monogamous: one male mates with one female Tend to be less sexually dimorphic o Polygamous: individual of one sex mates with several individuals of the other sex Species tend to be more sexual dimorphic 1 male mates with many females Males more showy Polyandrous 1 female mates with many males Females more showy Parental care behavior o If offspring requires lots of resources A male maximizes his reproductive success by staying with his mate and caring for his childs (monogamous) o If offspring requires few resources Males maximizes his reproductive success by having multiple partners (polygyny) o Certainty of paternity influences parental care and mating behavior o Paternal certainty is relatively low in species with internal fertilization More paternal care o Paternal certainty high in species with external fertilization Little parental care Sexual selection o Sexual dimorphism results from sexual selection, a form of natural selection o In intersexual selection, members of 1 sex choose mates of basis of certain traits o Intrasexual selection involves competition between members of the same sex for mates Evolution of female choice o Female chicks who imprint on ornamented fathers are more likely to select ornamented mates Game theory o In some cases, selection has driven the evolution of alternative behavior and morphology o Fitness of a particular phenotype depends on the phenotypes of other individuals in the population o Game theory: evaluates alternative strategies where the outcome depends on the individual's strategies o Side blotched lizard Each color associated with specific strategy for obtaining mates Orange throats: most aggressive males with large territories Blue: defend small territories Yellow: mimic females and use "sneaky" strategies to mate The success of each strategy depends on the frequency of all the strategies Orange > blue Blue > yellow Yellow > orange A lot like rock, paper, scissors No 1 better strategy Can be competition and see how they change Drives frequency-dependent selection Evolution of cooperation o Why would animals cooperate? o Natural selection favors behavior that maximizes an individual's survival and reproduction Usually at expense of another o Alltroistic behaviors: monkeys picking bugs off each other Inclusive fitness o Altruism can be explained o Inclusive fitness: total effect an individual has on producing offspring and helping close relatives produce offspring Evolution of altruism o W.D. Hamilton proposed Quantitive measuring for predicting when natural selection would favor altruism acts among related individuals Benefit of act: B Cost of altruism: C Relativeness: r Coefficient of relatedness o Fraction of genes that, on average, are shared Parent --> offspring = .5 Full sibling = .5 Uncle = .25 (nephew and niece as well) Cousins = .125 Hamilton's rule o Natural selection favors altruism if rB>C o Inequality of hamilton's rule Which should you save according to the inclusive fitness perspective? o 3 nieces Kin selection o Natural selection that favors this kind al altruistic behavior by enhancing reproductive success of relatives o Altruistic behavior toward unrelated individuals can be adapted if the aided individual returns favor in future Reciprocal altruism Cheater strategy: accept benefit but doesn't return it, if allele takes over a population, it can ruin altruism.