2 lectures! Causes of common diseases and Parental styles/marriage/divorce
2 lectures! Causes of common diseases and Parental styles/marriage/divorce PSY 2400
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This page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Mullins on Tuesday December 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2400 at Wayne State University taught by Dr.Glenn Weisfeld in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 92 views. For similar materials see Developmental psychology in Psychlogy at Wayne State University.
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Date Created: 12/08/15
Causes of common diseases pathology in general through the evolutionary scope evolutionary medicine book by Neese amp Williams Why We Get Sick explores this topic introducing the reader to the evolutionary approach of studying medicine There are some common diseases despite the fact that that natural selection works to weed out sick genes genes that generate diseases are selected out 1 Bodily Defenses There are adaptive mechanisms like coughing and nausea that serve a practical purpose It is adaptive to cough to get rid of the sickness This works to expel pathogens from the body Taking cough suppressants to stop the natural defense is it healthy What happens when we eat spoiled food We have nausea the tendency to vomit This is to rid the body of the toxic food Why do drugs often evoke nausea The body is sensing that something is wrong and goes through the motion of ejecting it from the body your body thinks its bad for you Diarrhea pathogen expulsion and fever elevated body temperature kills bacteria mobilizes body s defense against infectious agent Remember that nausea was considered a healthy response in a pregnant woman they reported healthier babies 2 Pathogens they re common because we re competing to live and they ve adapted well to living off of humans they spread by the thousands viruses evolve very quickly bacteria develop quickly to build an immunity to antibiotics There is a tradeoff between two goals of pathogens they want to feed off the host but also infect the next victim person to person diseases tend not to be very severe because if it s too severe they won t be mobile enough to spread the disease if its spread by a vector insect rat will be more debilitating and severe because the disease has something carrying it Cholera spread by water is severe no matter how sick someone is they ll have to defecate can spread to the next victim Malaria severe spread by mosquitoes After a cholera outbreak in southeast Asia they purified water which led to milder cholera 3 Diseases of civilization Diseases that were rare in prehistory but occur because of modern conditions and technology Flu viruses pass rapidly around the globe because of air travel People live in densely populated urban centers now and not small villages transmission is just more likely to occur Liabilities to clean city life water trash contributed to the polio epidemic of the 50s It was thought that they got severely ill because they got sick in late childhood If things had been less clean they probably would have gotten it younger and been able to ght it off Keeping things too clean has drawbacks Chicken pox and mumps are more serious is they re contracted in adulthood Countries and individuals who are particular about their cleanliness is more susceptible to autoimmune diseases and allergies We re also prone to accidents due to causes not found in our history Defenses against rearms machinery cars chemicals haven tcan t develop Drug addictions and interactions Diets heavy in carbohydrates more quantity of food less nutrient food make us more vulnerable to diseases Vitamin de ciencies like vitamin d cause rickets more common in AfricanAmericans in less sunny areas due to melanin blocking the little sunlight they receive Fluctuation of hormone levels due to many periods women experience used to just be pregnant or lactating all the time is related to higher levels of cancer and disease Modern behavioural contributions SIDS increases because we don t sleep with our babies anymore SIDS is 10X higher in cultures with no cosleeping in our culture Mothers can reduce colick in babies by holding them more often it was reduced in half when the mom held the baby for 3 hours a day the ush sitting toilet has higher levels of varicose veins and hemorrhoids as opposed to squatting toilets Evolutionary tradeoffs sicklecell disease caused by a genetic abnormality leads to greater vulnerability to sicklecell but more defense against malaria babies have a huge skull to house a huge brain although this is a big strain on the mother we couldn t develop wider hips because mobility would be compromised better safe than sorry diseases phobias of harmless things develop because of our sensitive fear system similarly our highly sensitive immune system makes someone allergic Autoimmune attacks its own esh as foreign Stress 9 cortisol They combat the stressor but other bodily processes are delayed Cortisol inhibits reproduction and development growth immune system stressed people are more likely to get cancer and infections Diseases of senescence Alzheimer s arthritis hearing loss cancer these are common because people aren t passing on their genes anymore less selection pressure Huntington s disease chorea is a CNS with an onset in the 40s characterized by tremors and a generalized decline in cognitive and behavioural abilities 6 Compound diseases schizophrenia is a compound disease quite common Autism they don t have a single causal source 7 Normal behaviour labelled as pathological just behaviours Anxiety disorders are commonly diagnosed as is depression Clinical psychologists are coming around to the notion that most are probably not depressed they re just grieving or mourning a healthy response to tragedy Pathological extremes are there but they can also be too mild to be adaptive Why are mental health professionals so quick to label these conditions as pathological Therapy sessions prolonged medications gov t will pay for treatments of certain diseases lots of over diagnoses eX rare disease Pseudobulbar palsy advertisement string of very vague symptoms could apply to a lot of people but most likely not what is wrong with them if there is something wrong underdiagnoses eX PTSD in the military gov t doesn t want to deter recruits increase cost of paying for therapy for the soldiers suffer bad PR ParentOffspring Behaviour its important to remember that this is a 2way street not just the baby bonding to the mother what mechanisms bond the parents to the child I Motheroffspring bonding A Development Precocial of a young bird or other animal hatched or born in an advanced state and able to feed itself almost immediately 1 Precocial species a Birds hatchlings imprint on mother due to timing if not imprinted in a certain amount of time it will not occur the mother s voice is the initial bonding tool she uses it to gather hatchlings when they have gotten too far from her since there are many in a litter she can t get them all individually lmprinting needs only a single exposure to occur this is how it differs from operant conditioning Also no rewardreinforcement operant conditioning requires it to learn the behaviour after the hatchling has imprinted it can t imprint on another female b Mammals ex sheep one offspring birth at a time initial bonding is extremely important Using multiple location mechanisms the mother can nd the lamb when its not at her side calling odour Altricial of a young bird or other animal hatched or born in an undeveloped state and requiring care and feeding by the parents 2 Altricial remain stationary in the nestden there is no seeking out the child for the mother she just returns home no urgency but she doesn t know her children very well can t recognize them A Mammal l primates young cling to mom from birth 2 rabbits attached to the nest not necessarily the babies If she returned and they were gone it would be less devastating than if the nest was gone 3 rhesus monkeys constant bonding since birth is important by the time the baby is independent bonding has have had to occurred or else tethering won t occur B Humans can t cling so babies depend on mom for the bond to be developed right away Moms can identify their child by their cry their odour etc By the third trimester bonding has already occurred as there is evidence a baby s heartbeat will rise when the mother is talking Quietalert period period of time 3045 minutes after birth that are perhaps the most crucial to bond At this time the mother analyzes the baby to make sure its normal establish eye contact with the baby if its possible to delay dropping antibiotics into the eyes of the baby before this happens it should be delayed It is an important experience for both mother and child Bonding is different in all animals due to differences in mobility B Mechanisms l Hormonespregnancy and lactation hormones including oxytocin drives maternal instincts to bond with the baby Even in the womb moms show compassion to their babies often after the first quickening feels baby s first kick before this she may feel guilt about feeling indifferent about her child Exposure the more exposed couples are to babies the more parental they ll feel Babies are cute to cut off attack cures to not attack your offspring infant schema babylike features that disarm someone and activates them to care for it big forehead aka supernormal stimuli Brain mechanisms the baby s cries activate limbic structures cingulate gyrus also when they re viewing a picture of their significant other After a CSection cingulate gyrus activity is reduced bonding is reduced between the mother and child also lower oxytocin levels If a sheep has a C Section it won t care for the lamb ll Behaviour A Maternal behaviours provides safety resources grooming milk antibodies transportation eliminates waste examples of behaviours especially food selection and warmth through bodily contact B Paternal behaviours reosurces protection more playroughhousing than the mother Fathers bond better with weanlings infants that have weaned off of mom s milk This is about the time that mom might have another baby so the responsibility of the older child is now on dad He will teach his son traditional skills that are complementary to women s traditional roles he will prefer a son to a daughter as a woman would traditionally prefer a daughter over a son The certainty of his paternity will also have an effect on how much he cares for the child More resemblance more certainty he s the father Many people will comment on the baby s resemblance to the father than the mother C Hormonal mechanisms 1 Maternal hormones A Rat same hormones that establish these bonds facilitate care call for the mother to build a nest assume nursing posture and retrieve pups when they stray these are xedaction pattems automatically know these B Simians from infancy girls are interested in babies C Women resurged interest in babies around puberty prenatal pregnancy and lactation hormones 2 Patemal male partner s prolactin levels rise through pregnancy rising prolactin blocks testosterone production more parental mindset comes through The higher the prolactin levels in each parents corresponded with more pain felt when a baby was crying Mammals are among the only animals who utilize biparentalism CAD versus DAD strategy CAD higher levels of testosterone more promiscuous DAD lower levels of testosterone more nurturing when a man marries his testosterone levels go down when he divorces it goes up there IS an evolved tendency for men to take care of their children Offspring hormones oxytocin released in the offspring when skinto skin contact is occurring lowers cortisol D Expressions contact calls 1 Mammals moms use facial expressions as warnings to stop offspring from continuing some action that is dangerous or harmful and sounds to attract offspring to something like food it is important for specific expressions to develop for fear full diaper pain show interest in something fatigue etc E Cognition and Learning 1 Experience observing maternal behaviour increases 2nd infant is treated better the parents simply know better it s exible there s a lot to learn lots of ways to learn it the more parents are in tune with the baby s cognitive development level the better off the baby is 3 Empathy fear grimace doesn t go away the baby is sheltered allows the baby to beg for food 111 Pathology A Abnormal releasers not care for the child cannibalize the child if the baby looks weird or is the runt she might not want to raise the baby to use her time to care for other children Preemies have a different more painful cry are less likely to be breastfed and have an abnormal smile blind babies don t quite smile normally babies with autism use a direct gaze less are less comfortable cuddling pedomorphic or less attractive babies get less care B Low parental hormones during rpregnanacy low estrogen and progesterone babies are more likely to have insecure attachments C Inexperienced parents treat the baby harsher expect more of the child than they are developmentally ready to experience lnfanticide done by more younger moms who have time to have a more normal child do it to use resources for other children D Q Low responsiveness higher insecure attachment less play more fear lowered creativity and poor cognitive development Low kinship 1 Single mother unrelated to the father the child is more likely to experience abuseneglect poverty insecure attachment psychiatric disorders 2 lnstitutionalized low responsiveness to needs they re either highly clingy or suspicious of adult activity 3 Daycare usually low responsiveness they re paid so there s little personal attention to each child 4 Adoption people seek similar children to themselves a lot of children are returned to adoption agencies because they re not what the people expected Parental death life long increased rate of depression Lifehistory factors sons are heavier at birth and are more taxing on the mother requiring more calories to sustain in the womb mothers of twins or lots of sons die younger boys are less likely to help care for siblings younger moms die earlier preemie couples have a 2nd baby faster than an average birth perhaps to have a normal baby sooner to prove tness parents grive more for a daughter closer to puberty than younger