Chapter 8 Notes
Chapter 8 Notes POLS 1101
Popular in Political Science or American Government
Popular in Political Science
This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Reshetova on Tuesday December 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 1101 at Georgia State University taught by Jeffrey L Lazarus (P) in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Political Science or American Government in Political Science at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 12/08/15
Chapter 8 Political Parties Candidates and Campaigns De ning the Voter39s Choice 0 Political Partyan ongoing coalition of interests joined together in an effort to get its candidates for public of ce elected under a common label Partiesgive voters a chance to in uence government 0 Party CenteredRepubican and Democratic parties compete election after election across the country Candidate Centeredindividual candidates make their own strategies form their own campaign organizations and choose their own issues Party Competition and Majority Rule The History of US Parties Linkage lnstitutionsParties serve to connect citizens with the government Party Competition narrows people39s options to two lets people act together Competition among partiesgives popular majorities on how they will be governed The First Parties 0 Early leaders did not trust parties 0 james Madison realized parties were a means by which likeminded citizens and leaders could work together to achieve their common goals 0 First Parties came from competition between Thomas jefferson and Alexander Hamilton 0 Alexander Hamiltonorganized Federalist Party Thomasjeffersoncreated DemocraticRepublican Party 0 Election of 1800 jefferson defeats Adams Federalists did not control Congress or White House ever again Era of Good Feeling james Monroe ran for second term it looked as though there may not be competing parties 0 End of Monroe39s Second TermDemocraticRepublican Party splits Democratsleader was Andrew jackson adopted jefferson39s dedication to the people 0 The party ofjeffersontoday s Democratic Party Andrew jackson and Grassroots Parties jackson39s goaseize political power from the established elite jackson wanted a grassroots party Grassroots Partyorganized at local level open to all citizens The Whigsopposed jackson39s policies later disintegrated 18505issue of slavery started to tear apart parties Republicansnorthern based party main challenger for the Democrats 1860 election Abraham Lincoln Republican wins Democratic vote was split between northern Democratic faction CandidateStephan A Douglas and southern Democratic faction Candidatejohn C Breckinridge issue was slavery Lincoln39s win caused Southern States to leave the Union Civil War rst and last time that the party system could not settle political differences Republicans versus Democrats Realignments and the Enduring Party System Party Realignments period of party change There are three basic elements 1 The emergence of issues that are isolating and usually powerful 2 Voters shift their support in an election or elections 3 A change in the parties coalitions and policies Four realignments occurred since 18505 First Realignment result of Civil War advantage to the Republicans Union Party dominated the north in elections The Solid South Democrats stronghold Next three Decades Republican held presidency not Grover Cleveland39s two terms Republicans only had Congress for majority for only 4 years Second Realignment 1896 election Bank collapsed three years before triggered an economic panic Democrats held presidency and people blamed party and the president Third Realignment Great Depression The stock market crashed and people blamed the president Herbert Hoover Republican and the business allies Democratsbecame majority party The Nature and Origins of Today39s Party Alignment Party Realignment loses strength as issues are declining in importance Fourth realignment 1South became Republican 2Northeastern Statesbecame Democratic the parties platforms and coalitions also changed1964 election ve states voted republican GOP Grand Old Party Republican Party gained most from the change above Parties and the Vote Onethird of Americans say they are independents when asked what party they belong to About twothirds of Americans say they lean towards one party or the other Most independentsvote in direction they lean Less than 15true independents Straight Ticket power of partisanship citizens uniformly support their party39s candidates Most who vote Republican or Democratic for a presidential candidatevote for party39s congressional candidate SpitTicketvoting for one party39s candidate and for the other party39s congressional candidate Electoral and Party Systems TwoParty System Exception rather than rule USA has had this throughout history Examples Republicans vs Democrats orJeffersonian Democratic Republicans vs Federalists Multiparty Systemmost democracies have this meaning three or more parties have the capacity to gain control of the government in coalition or separately The Plurality SingleMember District System of Election USA choosing of cials through plurality voting in singlemember districtsUSA39s twoparty system SingleMember Districteach constituency elects a member US state representative or senator to a different of ce the candidate with the most votes the plurality in the district wins Plurality SystemWinner TakesAll System discourages minor parties by lowering their chance of winning anything even if they platform well Proportional Representation Systemused in Europe seats in the legislature are distributed according to a party39s share of the popular vote lets smaller parties compete for power Politics and Coalitions in the TwoParty System Goal of a major USA partygain power by getting candidates that are theirs elected into of ce Republicans and Democratsonly win by attracting majority support USAparty can forfeit victory if party con nes its support too narrow of voters Seeking the Center Without Losing the Support of the Party Faithful Median Voter Theoremif there are two parties the parties can maximize their vote only if they position themselves at the location of the median voter can explain what can occur when a party makes a shift away from the center leaving them open to another party The Median Voterthe voter whose preferences are in the middle Balance of Power in American electionsrests with the moderate voters in the center Party Coalitions Party Coalition the interests and groups that support a party African Americansvote Democratic 80 Party Coalitions constructed around con ict over federal government role in solving economic and social problems Democratsfavor a lot of government involvement Democrats support from union members blacks city folks the poor Jews Hispanics other minorities Democratsmore support form women Gender Gapcharacteristic of white voters only White womenhod liberal opinions Republican Coalitionmajority white middleclass Americans GOP party of business incentives and tax cuts supportive of traditional value strongest in the suburbs attracted fundamentalist Christians Heavily democraticHispanics with the exception of Cuban Americans LowerIncome Hispanics vote Democratic at higher rates compared to upperincome Democratic Hispanicsliberal on economic issues conservative on social issues Minor Third Party US electoral systemdoes not encourage the formation of third parties One Minor Party gained majority status Republican Party Minor Parties formed to promote policies that their followers believe are not being represented by either of the two major parties Minor Party tries to capitalize on issues that have been neglected when conditions change and the major parties are slow to respond success is temporary Minor party gaining a foowingone or both major parties awaken to its issue Minor Partiesat a peak in the 19th century SingleIssue Partyminor parties exist today Right to Life Party do not have much in uence or following ExamplesFree Soil Party and the Greenback Party the Prohibition Party19th century Minor Parties of 20th century most important factional parties resulted from split within one of the major parties Factional PartiesBull Moose Party 1912 electorally successful Theodore Roosevelt formed the party The States39 Rights Party 1948 George Wallace s American Independent Party 1968 Strongest Ideological Party the Populists Strongest Ideological Party today the Green Party Some minor parties antiparties came out of a belief that partisan politics is a corrupting in uence The strongest of the reform parties the Progressives Party pressured some localities and states to adopt recall elections primary elections nonpartisan elections popular referendums and initiatives a more recent onethe Reform Party Party Organizations Republican and Democratic Partiescontain organizational units national state and local levels Party Organizations focus on the competition of elections The Weakening of Party Organizations Party Organization activities fundraising candidate recruitment policy development campaigning Party organizations do not control the activities fully Candidateshave lead role Nomination the selection of the person who will run as the party39s candidate in the general election Party organizations selected candidates until the early 20th century if they were elected they had to share the power of the office contracts and government jobs How a party build the organization granted contracts to donors and gave jobs to loyalists Some locationshad kickbacks and bribes as part of the process Progressivesinvented primary elections way to deny party bosses of their power over nominations Primary Electiongives control of nominations to the voters direct primary candidate who gets most votes in party39s primary gets nomination for general election Closed Primariesoccur in some states participation is limited to voters declared or registered at the polls as members of the party whose primary is being held other party voters cannot vote Open Primariesoccur in some states allows independents and sometimes voters of another party to vote in the party39s primary can39t vote at the same time in both party39s primaries TopTwo Primariescandidates listed on same ballot the two at the top win for general election No primariescandidates seeking nomination through party organization can be denied if not loyal to party39s policy goals Nominees can look for of ce on their own due to primaries Nominees have a lot of control over campaign money Most of the money goes to the nominees without passing through parties firsttoday Decrease of Patronage Jobs party organizations weakened Todaypatronage jobs exist The employees for the government assist with providing staff to the party organizations with volunteers as well grateful to single politician not to party organization Patronage Employers Congressional Staff Members The Structure and Role of Party Organizations Party Organizationlost in uence Activists and Nominees need organizations to work through National and State Organizationshelp nominees with polling research media production and fundraising USA partiesorganized at national state and local levels no chain of authority that brings them together Cannot tell each other what to do do not take orders from each other Each Party Organizationcan act as it wants selfruling Local Party Organizations USA Parties organized from the bottom up 95 party activities work within local organizations Local Parties vary in their activities and structure Concentrate on elections that occur with local boundaries Race for city council mayor county of ces and state legislature Take part in congressional stateside and presidential contests State Party Organization Partyheaded by a central committee made up of members of local party organizations and state and local of ce holders State Central Committeesdon t meet regularly provide general policy guidance for the state organization Chairpersondaytoday operations are directed by this person Stata Party Organizationsfundraising and voter registration activities they engage in concentrate on statewide races and on state legislature races Small rolecampaigns for local or national of ces Do not endorse candidates in statewide primaries in most states National Party Organizations Have national committees Have a national party chairperson Power of Republican National Committee and Democratic National Committee con ned to setting organizational policy no power to pick candidates no power to dictate nominee39s policy positions RNC and DNC raise money run training programs seek media coverage conduct issue and group research also try to recruit strong candidates to run in Senate and House races National Parties Major Roe raise and spend money RNC and DNCmajor sources of campaign funds House and Senate party campaign committees raise funds and provide advice to the parties39 congressional candidates Party Money spent on fundraising getoutthevote and advertising efforts Some moneygiven to House or Senate candidates directly for campaigns there is a legal limit on contributionsgreater for Senate Limits on money given were made when campaign nance laws were rewritten there was a loophole however that was made when court ruling let the parties raise unlimited funds on the condition that they were not delivered to candidates directly Rich person could give money legally to a candidate an amount that was limited The same rich person from sentence above could deliver an amount that was not limited to the nominee s party Soft Money Contributionsater prohibited The CandidateCentered Campaign More of a service relationship between party committees National Committeesnot able to hand pick nominees Party Organizations back candidates who win the primary If candidate wins general election the party denied of ce to the opposing pa y Today39s campaignscontrolled by candidates in congressional statewide and presidential races Candidateseach have personal organization are entrepreneurs Campaign Funds The Money Chase Campaigns for high officeexpensive lncumbents possess an advantage in fundraising have contributor lists from previous campaigns also have the policy in uence that donors look for Candidates spend time raising funds arrives from individual contributors interest groupPACs and political parties The money that is donated has limits termed hard money Hard Moneythe money is given directly to the candidate and can be spent as she or he chooses Candidatesbeneficiaries or casualties of spending by super PACs PACscame from the Citizens United vs Federal Election Commission case ruled that spending could not be restricted unions and corporations can spend and raise money on campaigns Organization and Strategy Political Consultants Political Consultants media producers pollsters campaign strategists and getoutthevote and fundraising specialists Polls and Focus Groupsused to identify issues and messages that will resonate with voters Campaign Consultants skilled at Packaging Packaging highlighting those aspects of the candidate s policy positions partisanship personality and personal background Over course of campaignpeople hear about the weaknesses of the candidate Many adsquotbady misleadingquot Voter Contacts Pitched Battle Candidates begin to campaign early often 2 years in advance Voters receive messages through the air the land the Web Air Wars Main battlegroundmass media television TVcame in 19605 Air Warsappies to candidates39 use of televised ads Candidatespay off each other s ads Rapid Responseget ads on the air faster Candidatesuse the press Debates part of media campaign Ground Wars Swing Votersvoters who could be persuaded to vote for either side Getoutthevote were conducted by the parties and labor unions other organizations Candidatesfind it dif cult even more to persuade voters to switch sides Candidatesvery important to get voters to the polls Web Wars Internet could overtake in the future as the medium of election politics currently it39s television Internet messagingess expensive With TVsome sit through a political ad when their favorite show is on the air On lnternetunsoicited message is deleted or ignored TVbetter medium for reaching lessinterested voters and constructing name recognition lnternetbetter medium for mobilizing supporters and fundraising In Retrospect The Consequences of the Last War Strong Campaign differences between loosing and winning Prospective Voting when voters are in uenced by what candidates promise to accomplish when elected Retrospective Votingwhen a greater number of voters respond to past performance Important in voter39s judgments national economic conditions When economy bad the inparty looses support Parties Candidates and The Public39s In uence Candidatecentered campaignshas advantages First advantage can put new candidates into electoral politics Candidate Recruitmentsow process Would be of ceholderspay dues adopt the outlook of the people already working at the party CandidateCentered Campaignsmore open provides opportunities to gain office faster lend exibility to electoral politics encourage national officeholders to be react quickly to local interests have disadvantages CandidateCentered Campaignssuppy a lot of opportunities for powerful interest groups to give money to candidates weaken responsibility strengthen the relationship between the individual representatives and their voters weaken the relationship between the representative institutions and the full electorate
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