Answering the Climate Problem through Politics
Answering the Climate Problem through Politics POLS 1500
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Steven Hernandez on Tuesday December 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 1500 at Ohio University taught by Brandon Kendhammer in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Themes in Global Politics in Political Science at Ohio University.
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Date Created: 12/08/15
Tuesday December 1 2015 POLS The Political Economy of Climate Change Mitigation What can We Do to Answer the Problem Externality Problem the costs or benefits imposed on nonparties to a transaction Externalities can be both positive or negative Ex Publiclyfunded education externalities benefits for student families economy and state vs waste externalities costs towards people that are not involved in the agreement to put waste somewhere else Commons and the Externality Problem Childhood Vaccinations and Herd Immunity Having a multitude of young kids in a community helps eliminate the amount of hosts for a disease benefiting those who do not or cannot take vaccine Overuse of vaccinations however can be negatie effects for those that cannot be protected for a disease that can overcome misuse of medicine Car usage EU Studies in addition to common ownership costs you or your community pay for other stuff that you may not do directly Ex wearing out roads require maintenance costs up to 250 per 1000 kilometers Other Exs Accidents most expensive police response medical care repair of property all paid for by government air pollution noise not easy to put a cost on climate change up and downstream other Collectively we are all paying the same price for this stuff Within the community regardless f0 how much you drive How do we get only those who commit these issues to pay for them and not society at large Tuesday December 1 2015 How to lnternalize an Externality Direct Regulation Ex CFC s in Hairspray strict ban that forced companies to create alternative ways for spray cans eliminating atmosphere damage Pigouian Tax Ex Special tax on cigarettes in which the money garnered from the prices is used to deal with externalities lung cancer etc Less people buy cigarettes and side problems are solved Externalities really change the costs of most electricity production methods Also any action on climate change will be expensive and will pass the costs down to the consumer of carbon With all things considered we have to figure out whether or not approaching the problem is worth it So Really What do We Do The Magic of the Cost Benefit Can we put a price on Climate Change Sort of Stern Report 5 of GDP per year escalating if predictions are conservative Should we pay for this now or later The issue with paying for these kind of things comes down to deciding whether or not to pay for things now or have confidence that we will be better off paying it in the future Ex paying for college after you graduate and have a job thus getting loans This is an important issue on solving climate change Is it worth it waiting for humanity to develop a smarter way to solve the issue Maybe we will be more financially powerful in the future But what if we are better off now ltlt See how complicated it can get Tuesday December 1 2015 Stern We should partake in methods today in order to not fall behind and begin to adress the problem Cost of Climate Change in the future Food prices might go up Water prices might go up Specie extinction Severe weather events Ice Age Apocalyptic changes Maybe Definitely possible Krugman vs Lomborg Krugman Lowdiscount idea We are uncertain of the value of the future so we should spend today Pigouian Tax Does not want to take the risk of finding out whether or not climate change will be a big problem in the future Lomborg Highdiscount idea Humans have always found a way to get though problems I mean we made it this far as a human society right Pessimists were wrong before about depleting resources focus on making lives better Focus on education funding to prepare the future generations to solve the problem Tuesday December 1 2015 POLS Who Governs Climate Cost Benefit Analysis Taxing Carbon Krugman We gotta tax carbon and use the funds to develop ways to fight climate change Two Strategies Carbon Tax per ton usually permit system tries to force companies to spend extra money to make green choices they could also pass extra cost on consumer consumers look for other means of pricing and extra money can also be put to helping living costs Cap and Trade Permit system if you fall under limit then you can sell extra Australian Carbon Tax Good or Bad Australia on perperson basis they are the largest carbon producers in the world Australia is big uses a lot of energy transport distribution AUS Carbon Tax taxed carbon making and gave money back to citizens in tax breaks that Only taxed big companies that produced the tightest amounts of carbon at least 25000 tons a year Unlimited permits rising 25 in price a year Goal was to get emissions cut by 80 In principle Krugman would support this idea Tuesday December 1 2015 Global Action and Climate Change All countries have to be involved in order to have progress Green Governmentally focus on global countries to come together and solve things The best rules are those in which everyone feels like they were heard and are followed by everyone Keep in mind it s hard to get over 190 countries to agree on one thing The Treaty Model Broad participation Ensure compliance Convince participants to change behaviors In 99 of situations none of these really happen Veto Players Problem If one country does not follow through the whole potential deal falls apart Alternatives Building Blocks small deals that deal with parts of the issue to start off Regional Approaches Just the Big Emitters Every country for itself