reproductivehealth.pdf EXSC 223 001
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chase Heffron on Tuesday December 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EXSC 223 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Thompson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology 1 in Physical Education at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 12/08/15
Reproductive health Know meiosis and oogenesis The primary sex organs are the testes and ovaries gonads These are responsible for producing hormones and gametes The oocytes egg and the sperm Gametes have a different amount of DNA than normal cells This is because of meiosis The gonads also produce sex steroids Steroid is a hormone that is a derivative of cholesterol These are not all anabolic steroids Androgens are the male s anabolic steroids we produce In females estrogen and progesterone are produced These steroids are responsible for inducing the production of gametes and sex characteristics There are accessory reproductive organs ducts glands and external genitalia The scrotum contains the male gonads The testis are were testosterone and sperm is produced The epididymis is a warehouse for sperm From the epididimus is a long duct called the vas deferens that travels up goes over the bladder into a large swelling called the ampulla This merges with the seminal vesicle to form the ejaculatory duct This merges with the urethra This travels from underneath the bladder to the end of the penis The ejaculatory duct is located in a walnut size gland called the prostate There is another structure that merges with the urethra called the bulbourethral gland The base of the penis actually extends into the pelvis The corpus soonoiosum surrounds the urethra within the penis The other part is the corpus cavernosum These together are known as the erectile tissues When the artery dialates it allows blood to ow into causing an erection The larger end of the penis is known as the glans The prepuce normally covers the glans of the penis This is what is cut off in circumcision The super cial fascia is a connective tissue layer in the scrotum In this layer there is smooth muscle called dartos muscle This causing wrinkling of the scrotum when it is cold to keep the testes at an optimal temperature There is a layer of external connective tissue between the testes In this layer there is muscle called the cremaster This is a skeletal muscle that raises and lowers the testes The optimal temp of the testes is about 3 degrees Celsius lower than body temp The internal spermatic fascia is another layer of connect tissue that surrounds each teste On top of the teste is the tunica vaginalis which is part of the peritoneum The teste has a white color on the outside This outer layer is the tunica albuginea There are arteries veins and nerves that travel to the testes The veins called the Dampiniform venous plexus wrap in a plexus fashion around artery and nerves This is thought to cool the blood ow from the artery coming into the testes Inside the teste there are lobules within the teste This lobules contain seminiferous tubule These contain the cells that will become sperm This also contain another cell that supports the spermata gonium There are also myoid cells This are responsible in squeezing the seminiferous tubules to move the sperm to the epididymis for storage There are also leydig interstitial cells which are responsible for producing testosterone Myoid and leydig cells exist just outside of seminiferous tubules Myoid cells cause sperm to move to the rete testes then into the epididymis Sperm if not ejaculated degrades after a number of days The ductus vas deferens is the tube that carries sperm into the ventral abdominal cavity This is what is cut in a vasectomy The urethra starts at the base of the bladder and extends to the glans of the penis It has three regions There is the prostatic urethra the membranous urethra and the spongey urethra The spongey is called spongey urethra because it is surrounded by spongy tissue The corpus spongiosum holds the urethra open during an erection When these ll with blood they pinch off the vein that drains away blood supply Erection is controlled by the parasympathetic nervous system Erections are more likely to occur when resting This is one of the only parts of the body where the PNS stimulates blood ow The PNS stimulates the release of nitric oxide which allows for blood ow to the penis Seminal vesicle about 70 of the uid in semen is produced by seminal vesicle In this uid is water fructose vitamin C prostaglandins This gland merges with the ampulla to form the ejaculatory duct Prostate gland gland that surrounds the prosthetic urethra It has its own secretions It contains Citrate enzymes and prostate speci c antigen Sperm use Citrate as a source of energy Bulbourethral gland gland that secretes a mucous like substance This is the rst to be secreted It is thought to help neutralize acid conditions in the vagina It is also thought to act as a lubricant Semen mixture that contains sperm and secretions from accessory glands Semen contains nutrients fructose citrate prostaglandins Prostaglandins are thought to make the mucous of the cervix more runny and penetrable Semen is basic in nature to neutralize the acidic vagina Sperm are dormant until they mix with secretions from the prostate Volume of sperm varies between males Only 25 ml of semen are ejaculated containing 20150 million spermml It takes more than one sperm to penetrate into egg For ejaculation to occur the male has to be aroused Erection is the result of the PSN This system is responsible for the release of nitric oxide which results in vasodilation lling the corpus cavernosum and corpus spongiosum Impotence is the inability to attain an erection Erectile dysfunction is impotence Ejaculation is an event that may or may not accompany an erection ejaculation refers to the expulsion of semen Normally that does not occur without an erection Ejaculation is controlled by the sympathetic nervous system SNS causes contraction in the smooth muscle in structures such as epididymis which causes ejaculation Female Most female genitalia is internal The uterus is a large hollow organ that contains smooth muscle Associated with the uterus is the fallopianuterine tubes These extend off the top side portion of the uterus to the ovaries Ovaries are the female gonads that produce estrogen as well as oocytes The uterus is xed in location by ligaments At the base of the uterus is the cervix This is that transition area that contains a mucous plug It is thought to prevent bacteria in the vagina from entering the uterus The cervix is what dilates It goes from 1 to 10 centimeters before birthing The cervix must dilate suf ciently before the child can come out otherwise injury can occur The vagina is the tube necessary for intercourse It is mostly smooth muscle with an epithelial lining This must also enlarge Hymen is a thin piece of tissue that covers the opening to the vagina The labium majus is covered with skin and is covered with hair The labium minus is the inner and this is covered by mucous membrane The greater vestibular gland is dorsal to the outer part of the vagina and lubricates the vagina for sex The mons pubis is a fatty area over the skin that is attached to the pubis bone and is covered with hair The clitoris is the female equivalent of the penis In men the urethra doubles as an outlet of urine and semen in women it is completely independent The fallopian tube and uterus are held in place by connective tissues The mesovarium and mesometrium are layers of the peritoneum Together these form a mesentery to hold all these organs together These are what get stressed and can cause discomfort as a baby grows in the uterus The Ovaries are not continuous with the uterine tubes The uterine tube provides a covering for the ovaries that has ngerlike projections called mbriae The mbriae guide ovulated eggs towards the ovarian tube The rst section of the uterine tube closest to the ovary is the infundibulum Then it goes into a wider region called the ampulla then a narrow region called the isthmus Fertilization of an oocyte does not occur in the uterus it most often occurs in the ampulla When an egg is ovulated it can either make it to the uterine tube or not If the egg does not make it into the uterine tube it can end up into the peritoneal cavity The problem with this is that this egg can still be fertilized Similarly eggs can sometimes implant themselves in the uterine tubes These pregnancies are called ectopic pregnancies and can be life threatening In ammatory pelvic disease can lead to scarring at the isthmus of the uterine tube and can cause sterility The outer layer of the ovary has something refered to as the germinal epithelium This is the visceral layer of the peritoneum Beneath that is a lining called the tunica albuginea similar to the testes lining There are two distinct regions known as the cortex and medulla The cortex is where the oocytes are found in various stages of development The medulla is where the blood vessels are found The gametes are referred to as follicles Multiple follicles get activated a month one is dominant lt progresses through stages until ovulation Corpus luteum is responsible for hormones after ovulations The hormone that signals to the pituitary gland if an egg is fertilized is HCG lt triggers the pituitary to secrete FSH and LH Those hormones keep the corpus luteum alive HCG is what is tested in pregnancy tests Uterine tube has ciliated cells to help egg move It takes roughly six days for the egg to make it to the uterus Fertilization takes place in the uterine tubes The egg will attach to the uterus and try to implant The uterus is a muscular organ It is hollow and it is made up of 3 primary layers The inner endometrium The myometrium is the thick part and the perimetrium is the outer layer The smooth muscle cells in the myometrium can go through mitosis This is called hyperplasia This happens at puberty and during pregnancy The endometrium is where the egg tries to implant It is also part of the endometrium that is lost during menstruation There are two primary layers of the endometrium There is the lower basal membrane and the outer layer called the functional layer The basal layer is always present and contains stem cells The functional layer is what grows new every month It is able to regrow due to the stem cells There is a rich blood supply in endometrium The lining is the tissue that is receptive to the egg and then nurtures the egg Estrogen promotes the proliferation of the endometrium lining This causes thickening and the blood supply to enhance Shortly after ovulation progesterone is produced and this further augments what estrogen does This is when the endometrium reaches its thickest point Loss of the endometrium is due to loss of estrogen and progesterone Without the corpus luteum the hormone levels fall rapidly in a 24 hour period Breasts not a direct reproductive organ source of nutrition for newborns Breast size is related to amount of fat cells located Unless a female is nursing the mammary glands are very small Estrogen is responsible for this site speci c growth of mammary gland Milk is not produced until 4872 hrs after birth The outside is the nipple which is where the milk ducts emerge The areolar is the dark patch around the nipple The areolar contains a high percentage of sebaceous glands There are mammary glands that can be broken down into lobules These lobules secrete into ducts that lead to the nipple The mammary glands are only swollen during nursing Breast cancer is cancer of the ducts that are associated with the mammary glands Breast cancer tends to spread This is why the lymph glands are taken out The cancer cells spread through the lymph glands Breast cancer is very dangerous Breast cancer is associated with the epithelial cells of the ducts There are risk factors Early onset of menstration or late menopause increase risk of breast cancer Waiting later to have children and family history are also associated with breast cancer There are 2 genes common with 10 of breast cancer Detected by palpation
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