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Notes with specific questions

by: ayesha

Notes with specific questions BIOL 3840

Marketplace > Georgia State University > BIOL 3840 > Notes with specific questions
Animal Biology

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Here is a list of questions answered from the lecture notes that might be helpful for the first exam
Animal Biology
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by ayesha on Tuesday December 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 3840 at Georgia State University taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views.


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Date Created: 12/08/15
Animal Bio Exam 1 Study Questions RED questions BLACK answers Lecture 2 questions What selective bene ts might multicellularity have had for early animals What selective costs might associate multicellularity Explain your responses clearly enough for a BIOL2108 student could understand the rst time they read your answer The rst cell types of multicellular organisms were multiple cell states existing at the same time in a group of cells Selective bene ts specialization of celsfeeding absorption reproduction metabolism nutrient storage barriers body organs are able to communicate with one another more possibility of survival if one organ or one part is damaged there is a backup system Multicellular organisms are bigger than unicellular organism and therefore can avoid predator easily Bigger size more complexity Larger animals are able to compete better Selective cost Evolution only favors mutations that increase the tness of the individuals that carry them If brain dies the other organs also stop functioning By which 3 means might multicellularity have arisen in animals Which is most convincing to you justify your response 1symbiotic relationship between protest species 2ancestral colonial protest 3Ceuarization mutinuceate protest ancestor evolves membrane around nuclei What is an animal List characteristics unique to animals a living organism that feeds on organic matter typically having specialized sense organs and nervous system and able to respond rapidly to stimuli 1All develop from a blastula a hollow ball of embryonic cells 2Animalspeci c cell adhesion molecules including bronectin and cadherins protein that is only found in animals and not protozoa 3Animalspeci c cell junctions including tight junctions desmosomes and gap junctions 4extracellular matrix ECM containing collagen Diploblasty is a condition of the blastula in which there are two primary germ layers the ectoderm and endoderm Triploblasty is a condition of the blastula in which there are three primary germ layers the ectoderm mesoderm and endoderm The germ layers form during gastrulation of the blastula synapomorphy a character or trait that is shared by two or more taxonomic groups and is derived through evolution from a common ancestral form Lecture 3 questions Compare and contrast fundamental niche and realized niche Fundamental niche includes all acceptable conditions which a species can occupy Realized niche subset of suitable conditions that a species occupies The term includes community and population interactions Using the table of community interactions write out your own Speci c example of each interaction Clearly justify your gsponse Is it neutral Negative Positive How Mutualism oxpecker a kind of bird and the rhinoceros or zebra Oxpeckers land on rhinos or zebras and eat ticks and other parasites that live on their skin The oxpeckers get food and the beasts get pest control Commensalism epiphytic plants which grow on other plants but are not parasitic gain bene t from living on larger plants because they gain access to a substrate upon which to grow relatively high in the canopy The host tree however are not affected in any signi cant way Parasitism hornworm caterpillar and the braconid wasp The wasp lays eggs inside the hornworm which then hatch and kill the host Competition lnterspeci c competition is when different animals that live in the same geographic area sympatric species compete for the same set of resources mostly food and space lntraspeci c competition is when different species compete with each other usually for more speci c requirements like mates and nestingdenning sites Amensalism two types of amensalism competition and antibiosis ln competition a larger or more powerful organism excludes another organism from its source of shelter or food In antibiosis one organism secretes a chemical that kills the other organism while the one that secreted them chemical is unharmed The bread mold Penicilium commonly grows on any bread that has passed its shelf life This mold is capable of producing penicillin which destroys many of the forms of bacteria that would also like to grow on this bread It is this understanding of the bacteriakilling properties of penicillin that led to the use of it as an antibiotic medicine The Penicilium does not bene t from the death of the other bacteria making this an example of antibiosis amensalism Why do population sizes of predator and prey oscillate Populations of predator and prey tend to oscillate when a predator relies on a single prey species What is resource partitioning Resource partitioning occurs when two species coexist in spite of apparent competition for the same resources Close study would reveal that they actually occupy slightly different niches By pursuing slightly different resources or obtaining resources in slightly different ways individuals minimize competition and maximize success Dividing up resources in this manner is called resource partitioning Why does resource partitioning reduce tness Members of the same species have very similar resources requirements whereas different species have a smaller contested resource overlap No matter how much a species divides up the resources in the end it tends to run out and reduce tness of one group or another If the Principle of Competitive Exclusion is true how can gsource partitioning occur That is why does resource partitioning occur at all Shouldn39t one species iust end up outcompeting the others Resource partitioning occur because species actually end up occupying slightly difference niches rather than inhabiting the same place This allows them to obtain resources in different ways than the other species Which is more bene cial Type I or a Type III survival curve ustify your response Answer the question again arguing for the Opposite response Type I survival curve is more bene cial since most of the individuals will make it to adulthood but the proportion surviving into old age is greatly decreased This can be supported by the fact that the generations within this survival curve can support themselves all the way through old age which is better than curve lll where many young are produced but most die early Earth has a carrying capacity for humans Why is this the case Can technology change Earth39s carrying capacity for humans Can technology eventually result in Earth having in nite carrying capacity for humans Justify your responses Earth has a carrying capacity because it can only allow certain number of humans to inhabit before it can run out of space or resources Technology can eventually result in earth having in nite carrying capacity by building more space for humans to live already half way there due to the increasing number of skyscrapers Technology can also help produce more food that the earth itself is capable of making however the quality of life might decline since most of the resources will be arti cially produced Lecture 4 questions Make a list of the vocabulary we used in this lecture De ne each word Morphogens gene products Mosaic variety ls a gene the same as a gene product A gene product is the biochemical material either m or protein resulting from expression of a gene Which is italicized gene names or protein names Gene names The fate of blastomeresis often controlled by unequal inheritance of morphogens during division of the zygote The mechanism of determining cell fate is called cytoplasmic Speci cation Why is this an appr0priate name That is why call this mechanism cytoplasmic speci cation This is an appropriate name because it a process During embryonic cleavage by which molecules within the cytoplasm of each cell specify cell fate so it basically specifies the cell fate within the cytoplasm Review slide 22 Do Drosophila bicoid and nanos protein inhibit or stimulate translation of hunchback and caudal mRNA respectively How does this affect the distribution of hunchback and caudal protein in the prosonhila embryo Maternal bicoid mRNA is concentrated at anterior end of egg What does conserved mean in the followingstatement quotHox genes are highly conservedquot It explains the consistency of early development among diverse animal phyla How does order of Hox genes on chromosomes correspond to their location along the anteriorposterior axis of the body The order represents where the gene will be expressed along an animal s anteriorposterior axis


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