SOC 2181 Week 3: Jan 29
SOC 2181 Week 3: Jan 29 SOC 2181
Popular in South African Political Sociology
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by -deleted-apierson on Saturday January 31, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 2181 at George Washington University taught by Buntman in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 121 views. For similar materials see South African Political Sociology in Sociology at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 01/31/15
1292015 1114 AM D Chapters 1 12 in Long Walk to Freedom by 1222015 D Chapters 13 81 in Long Walk to Freedom by 1222015 D Chapters 1 7 in History ofSouth Afrco by 1222015 Defining Apartheid literal meaning of separateness a comprehensive legal political economic social repressive and ideological system of minority white racial rule over a black majority that structured the South African state and society in virtually all respects It is important to understand the legal foundations of Apartheid it39s notjust about understanding structures but rather the deep ideological commitments and how people see themselves landela talks about how he could not only understand what he wanted to understand but was forced to understand what his opposition wanted Whites wanted Apartheid to be of legal legitimacy The idea that the state had the right to rule due to the rule of law Gramsci39s Hegemony dominant ways of thinking where the dominated are coerced to give their consent to being dominated There are people who make their living based on supporting Apartheid ie police officers bureaucrats Although the coercion was based largely on race it was also based on people39s political activism Some legal precursors 1936 Development Trust and Land Act blacks cannot own land Prohbition of Mixed larriages Act 1949 and the Immorality Amendment Act 1950 restricts marriage and later sex between races The population registration act 1950 Classifies everyone into one of four racial groups colors whites blacks Indians Can39t have Apartheid without this act One of the reasons you have to do this is because you want to separate out where people can live Group Areas Acts 1950 is also based on economics It39s about not wanting to live with blacks and also wanting them to be close enough to do all the nasty work The term quotgroup areasquot establishes the idea of group identity It underlies the population registration act but also becomes even more important the idea of the distinct ethnic and linguistic identity Influx control one of the important changes ofthe 1952 laws is that it39s extending passed laws to women The national party government becomes very South Africa Page 1 surprised by the level of resistance that women put up to the laws Bantu Education 1953 we want blacks to be educated but y39know not too educated We want them to be able to read in order to do work but not the ability or inclination to stand up for their own rights The state gets rid of church based education The people who were educating tended to be more critical of apartheid Extension of University Education Act 1959 segregated previously desegregated schools As a result we got a lot more Afrikaans schools the University for colored people the University for Indian people and expansions of universities for black people In many ways this was very important for galvanizing a part of white society that basically accepted the status quo 19481980 white support grows under Apartheid begins to decline in 1980 Right opposition becomes greater than the liberal opposition One of the reasons Apartheid gets stronger is because the economy expands There is a rising group of educated Afrikaaners and the job segregation pays off South African economy becomes increasingly diversified Increase industrialization and increased sophistication in the economy occurs However we begin to hit structural constraints paradox of some of South Africa39s economic success we need more skilled labor but there are not enough Afrikaaners or English speakers to fulfill that quota There is an undertrained black population which is problematic as we go into the 70s Helen Suzman very involved in prison reform In some ways Apartheid was helped by the cold war They were able to solidify themselves as antiCommunist The world never completely accepts Apartheid India is the first nation to really challenge Apartheid The UN quickly establishes opposition Apartheid as one of its formation of identity There is decolonization going on in the 50s and 60s and that means that the UN39s decolonization of yellowbrownblack countries is growing US and the 80s antiapartheid movement becomes a us social movement 1950s resistance colored communities don39t accept Apartheid however elites are the most active African National Congress plays a key role in acceptance It has formal and informal alliances with other groups While the government is preaching segregation the ANC was promoting multiracialism ANC was only meant for Africans but it worked closely with colored Indian and white people South Africa Page 2 That was all open and above ground One reason the ANC is so strong in this period is because it has new leadership It39s under Mandela Tambo Sisulu Apartheid also sees fragmentation of the opposition because of the Pan Africanist Congress PAC under its leader PAC breaks around from ANC in 1959 Early 1960s it39s the PAC against passed laws that turns to a pivotal role in dissembling Apartheid By the time that Mandela goes to prison internal resistance in South Africa is crushed From 65 to 70 it is the quietest time of resistance But this is a time when the ANC was beginning to develop outside South Africa because it was exiled It took advantage of decolonization During this time Apartheid was basically on steroids It pushes through in a number of ways security legislation increases organizations are banned dissent was classified as terrorism imprisonment increases Massive relocation of black people in both urban and rural areas into 13 of the land happens Late 1960s we get black resistance reemerging By 1969 under the leadership of Steve Biko you get an independent black student organization South African Student Organization SASO One of the things Biko and the Black Consciousness Movement BCM do is show that everyone who is not white shares a similar oppression You share an identity as Black South Africans In that way BCM was ahead of the ANC in arguing this Black trade unions develop 1976 black high school students rebel against the requirement that Afrikaans will be the language in which they learn It39s seen as more difficult Black school students lead a huge resistance in part which is lit because the government reacts with extreme force killing people this is the beginning of the end of Apartheid Coopting the National party decides to try and bring in more people to their base They do this in a few ways one is by making certain economic reforms ie trade unions tricameral parliament Indian colored white parliament 4m whites 2m colored 1m Indians South Africa Page 3
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