Chapter 14 Lecture Notes
Chapter 14 Lecture Notes BIO 120
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haleigh Siple on Wednesday December 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 120 at Grand Valley State University taught by Rybczynski in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biological Sciences at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 12/09/15
Bio 120 Lecture Notes Nov 30th Chapter 14 Mendel and the Gene Idea Pea Plants can selffertilize because of the owers shape The Blue Fugates blue skin caused by a rare blood condition called methemoglobenimia Mendell experimented in order to identify laws of inheritance Bred pea plants Character heritable feature e g Height ower color Trait variant of character Truebreeding individual that reproduces with itself will always result in the same physical trait Controlled pollination male sex organs removed P Generation paternal modified individuals F1 Offspring of P Gen F2 Selfpollinated offspring from F1 Choose either or no gradient expression in traits ower colors were either purple or white Law of Segregation White owers showed up in the F2 generation 75 Purple 25 White Purple is a dominant trait White is recessive Alleles versions of genes different sequences of nucleotides If alleles differ dominant determines trait Alleles separate during Meiosis Homozygous 1 type of allele either both dominant or both recessive Heterozygous 2 types of alleles dominant and recessive mix Phenotype visible trait Genotype genetic information The Testcross Cross unknown dominant either homozygous or heterozygous and a known recessive homozygous trait Mendel s Law of Segregation Monohybrid cross 1 character Flower color Bio 120 Lecture Notes Nov 30th Mendel s law of Independent Assortment Dihybrid cross 2 characters Seed color and shape independently assorted and do not in uence one another Dihybrid Heterozygous for both traits only applies to traits on different chromosomes Probability Laws determine inheritance and apply to segregation and independent assortment Finding Probability Multiplication Rule Ex What are the chances of ipping heads twice in a row 12 X 12 IA Keyword and Addition Rule Ex What is the probability of Rr Keyword or Inherited patterns are more complex than can be determined by simple Medelian laws 1 If alleles are not completely dominant Complete Dominance Heterozygous and Homozygous dominant look the same CoDominance 0 Human Mn Blood Group 0 Glycoproteins heterozygotes show both phenotypes Incomplete Dominance Heterozygotes intermediate between homozygous pink owers instead of red or white 2 When a particular gene has more than 2 Alleles Most genes are contained in populations of 2 or more alleles 0 Human ABO blood group 3 When a single gene produces multiple phenotypes Multiple symptoms of disease 0 Cystic Fibrosis o Sickle Cell Enimia Most genes are pleiotropic Ephistasis interaction between 2 related enzymes Polygenic skin color different combos of alleles usually result in a normal distribution Nature vs Environment is synonymous with Genetic vs Environment Example 0 Skin Color Sun exposure 0 Height nutrition 0 Intelligence experience Bio 120 Lecture Notes Nov 30th Pedigree analyzation of patterns and inheritance Dominant Traits require at least one affected parent Affected individual With no affected parents means it s a recessive trait