Week 12 Communications 3440
Popular in Mass Communications and Society
Popular in Communication Studies
This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by molly wagenbrenner on Wednesday December 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Communications 3440 at Ohio State University taught by Dr. William "Chip" Eveland in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Mass Communications and Society in Communication Studies at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 12/09/15
WEEK 15 and 16 113015 12915 0 Knowledge Gap Hypothesis 0 quotAs the infusion of mass media information into a social system increases segments of the population with higher socioeconomic status tend to acquire this information at a faster rate than the lower status segments so that the gap in knowledge between these segments tend to increase rather than decreasequot O The rich get richer and the poor get poorer knowledge wise in this case 0 Reasons for increasing Knowledge Gap 0 Communication skills 0 Amount of stored information 0 More relevant social contacts 0 Selective exposure acceptance and retention 0 Nature of media system 0 Neverending progress and the expansion of knowledge 0 Do those of loss SES ever really catch up 0 New news is created every day 0 New discoveries are made 0 New technologies are developed PROSOCIAL MEDIA o Prosocial media 0 Three types 0 Educational TV for children 0 Entertainmenteducation 0 Social marketing for healthsafety concerns see textbook 0 Prosocial Children39s TV 0 Education TV vs ProSocial TV 0 Educational designed to educate 0 Bill Nye o Sesame Street 0 Prosocial designed to teach prosocial lessons 0 Blue Clues o Sesame Street 0 Most popular children39s show worldwide 0 Translated into many languages 0 Adapted to local culture 0 Purpose is to teach 35 year olds 0 Lower SES kids 0 Target at disadvantage children 0 Appeals beyond disadvantaged children 0 Animation humor movement puppetsmuppets live action 0 These appeal to young children 0 Satire and celebrity appearances 0 Appeal to coviewing adults 0 Intentional use of multiracial multiethnic multiclass genderbalanced cast 0 Effects of Sesame Street 0 Attention to and liking is high 0 Positive effects educational social skills and acceptances of others 0 Effects on vocabulary stronger for younger children 0 Effects are stronger with parental coviewers o Criticisms of Sesame Street 0 Distorts expectations for learning 0 Postman 0 Knowledge gap 0 Decreased attention span 0 Entertainmenteducation O Often used in developing countries 0 India Hum Log was the most popular program in history of Indian TV 0 Effects of Hum Log varied by identification 0 Similar to All In The Family 0 Seat belts 0 Others 0 Conclusions Regarding Entertainment Education 0 Educational messages in entertainment TV 0 Can be very popular 0 Shouldn t be too blatant o Are more effective if paired with specific tips on behavior change 0 Repetition of prosocial themes more effective than PSAs 12415 RESPONSES TO MEDIA EFFECTS 0 Levels of Responses to Media Effects 0 Sociallevel 0 Censorship 0 Ratings and restrictions 0 Media literacy O Individuallevel 0 Limit own exposure 0 Parental mediation 0 Classic Examples of Attempted Music Censorship 0 Beatles quotLucy in the Sky with Diamonds 0 John Denver quotRocky Mountain High 0 2 Live Crew quotAs Nasty As They Wanna Be 0 IceT quotCop Killer 0 Parents Music Resource Center 0 Perceptions of Media Effects 0 Thirdperson effect 0 Perceptual component 0 Overestimate of effects on others o Underestimate of effects on self 0 Behavioral component 0 Support for censorship Lining BidPerson Perceptions to Support Censorship 0 Studies of Bidperson perceptions and censorship of o Pornography 0 Violent TV content 0 O J new coverage 0 Violent and misogynic rap and death metal lyrics VChip amp TV Ratings Kaiser Foundation 2001 O 40 of parents have a VChip TV 0 Of those who have it o 12 don t know they have it 0 13 choose not to use it 0 15 used it to block shows 0 12 of parents have used ratings to make kid viewing decisions 0 1A of parents say they use ratings often 0 40 of pa rents say most shows not rated accurately 0 Parents understand the age ratings better than the content ratings 0 12 say content ratings are most useful 0 15 say agedbased are most useful mp O O lications of labels and restrictions Tainted fruit hypothesis Forbidden fruit hypothesis 0 Psychological reactance Media literacy O The ability to sift through and analyze messages that inform entertain and sell to us 0 Critical thinking skills 0 Asking questions about what s there and not there 0 Asking questions about what lies behind media productions 0 Parental mediation O Restrictive mediation 0 Set rules quotno TV until homework donequot 0 Coviewing 0 Watching with kids Not explaining the TV show 0 Active mediation 0 Watching with kids and explaining the TV show WEEK 14 112315 0 Entertainment News and Politics 0 Can political information need to be satisfied by The Daily Show 0 How does television news compare with The Daily Show 0 Substantive coverage 0 Campaign issues and candidate qualifications 0 Hype 0 Horse race and hoopla 0 Humor 0 Joking and laughing 0 Network News and The Daily Show 0 No difference is statistically significant between the two 0 Types of Political Communication Effects 0 Intentional 0 News intended to inform to mobilize participation 0 Unintentional 0 News transmits rumors and confuses 0 News creates cynicism and disengagement o Diffusion O The process by which 0 And innovation is communicated through certain channels overm among members of a social system 0 Innovation 0 Idea practice or object perceived as new 0 Can be information attitude or behavior 0 Channels 0 Channels are how messages move between individuals 0 Television newspaper 0 Online news 0 Interpersonal discussion 0 Face to face 0 Internet 0 Telephone 0 Span of Time 0 Minutes to hours 0 Kennedy assassination o Challenger explosion 0 911 terrorist attacks 0 Days 0 Clinton39s affair with Monica Lewinsky o Lebron39s quotdecisionquot 0 Years 0 How to slow spread of HIVAIDS 0 Use of new media like WWW world wide web WEEK 13 111615 112015 0 Music Genre Stereotyping 0 What kinds of drugs they do alcohol they drink and traits they have 0 Variations in Music Lyrics across Genres long and eveland 0 Music as memory cues O Melody provided retrieval cue 0 Used in advertising jingles 0 Can recall past life events including feelings 0 Sex and Priming in Music 0 College students listened to quotinnocuousquot and quotsuggestivequot music 0 Then evaluated members of the opposite sex in an online dating site no pictures shown 0 Sensitive assertive w dependable aggressive desirable sincere impulsive and quotoverall attractivenessquot O m 23 profiles evaluated there is an effect on the way the people evaluated the profiles 0 How much the sexy or desirable trait effects how the overall attractiveness is of the profiles 0 Effects of Sex in HipHop Videos 0 Subjects exposed to music videos 0 High sexual 0 My Humps Touch It Laffy Taffy Shake and Here it Go 0 Low sexual 0 Tell Me When to Go When I39m Gone My Hood Poppin39 My Collar and Testify 0 Assessment of outcomes 0 Objectification 0 Its ok to evaluate women39s bodies as they pass on the street 0 Its ok for me to whistle or call out to attractive women they don t know 0 Rape myth acceptance 0 Women who dress provocatively or wear revealing clothes are just asking for it 0 Gender attitudes 0 Sons should be given more encouragement than daughters 0 Sexual permissiveness o I believe sexual touchingoral sexintercourse is acceptable on thefirst night dating seriously dating engaged 0 Music and Mood Repair 0 Use of music to repair unpleasant moods 0 Subjects placed in sad vs neutral mood 0 Subjects then given opportunity to select among a series of sad vs joyful song 0 People who were joyful listened to more joyful music than sad mood people 0 People who were sad listened to more sad music than joyful mood people 111815 News and Politics 0 Outline 00000 O Obligations of news Patterns of quotnewsquot use quotnewsquot media content Diffusion of newsinnovation Knowledge gap Other news effects 0 Functions of News and Politics Gurevitch and Blumler 1990 O O O O O Surveillance Agenda setting report the biggest stories Platform for advocacy should use media platforms to relay news Platform for dialogue across diverse views opportunity for people to defendargue for or against case Hold officials accountable for exercise of power Provide incentives for citizens to learn choose and become involved encourage to get engaged and feel rewarding for getting involved Provide resistance to efforts to subvert media independence 0 Obstacles to Success 0 O O O Conflicts among the goals Nature of political communications can discourage participation Not everyone isor must be interested in politics Political and economic constraints 0 Pew Media Consumption Survey 0 O of regular news audience who are Under30 o 43 Colbert Report 0 39 Daily Show 0 32 NY Times 0 23 of public 65 or older 0 42 Sean Hannity o 40 Bill O39Reilly 0 28 Hardball o 17 of public Conservative o 78Sean Hannity o 71 Rush Limbaugh o 69 Bill O39Reilly 0 35 of public Liberals o 57 Rachel Maddow o 48 Hardball o 43 Daily Show 0 22 of public Republicans o 65 Sean Hannity o 63 Rush Limbaugh o 52 Bill O39Reilly 0 24 of public 0 Democrats Political News Content 0 Manifest Content 0 On the surface 0 Explicitly stated or communicated O Latent Content 0 Below the surface 0 What is read quotbetween the linesquot Content of Political News 0 Coverage and sound bites 0 Horse race and policy news 0 Negativity 0 Political bias 0 Other biases Farnsworth and Lichter 2011 0 Amount of General Election News 0 Political coverage is greater during bad economic time wars Not a steady decline but varies depending on exterior factors How is Politics covered Sound bite news 0 Sound bite short clip of politic talking O Averages for 25 seconds Emphasis of TV News General Election Coverage WEEK 12 11915 111315 Emotions Sports and Music 1 Emotions and Media Use a Emotions are integral to watching TV listening to music b Music and sports are strongly connected to emotions c Vicarious emotional experience d Emotional contagion 2 Why Study sports and Media a Sports are cultural phenomena i Superbowl OSUMichigan game ii Even people who are not fans get involved and are aware of sports events b The media bring sports to us i May be the only source of information c Our perceived reality about sports is a media creation 3 Psychological Issues in Sports and Media a Why do we watch sports b What do we enjoy about them c What emotions do we experience when we watch sports d Sports viewing is different than most other entertainment TV because it is unscripted and the outcome is unknown 4 Sports Viewing is a Social Event a Watch with others quotcoviewers i Game seems more enjoyable with others ii Effects of the group on arousal and emotions iii Watching sports alone or with a group of friends b Food and drink accompany sports viewing i We eat and drink more while viewing sports than other types of content ii Range of what is consumed is narrow 111315 0 Emotional Effects of Watching Sports Schweitzer et al 1992 0 Auburn and Alabama students asked to watch football game on TV 0 Afterwards measured 0 Estimates of chances of war between US and Iraq 0 Estimates of numbers of casualties in war 0 Asked other students 5 days after the game o If your team lost the mindset of going to warcasualty is higher than those who won 0 The control group that didn t watch game had no effect 0 Showing mood effect O BIRGing Basking in reflective glory O CORFing Cutting off reflective failure 0 Method 0 Dedicated male fans of Wisconsin basketball 0 Watched live game on TV 0 Win vs Lose conditions 0 Emotional Responces to Sports 0 Viewers empathize with favored team 0 Empathy drives emotional response 0 How does emotion and enjoyment change over time during viewing 0 Testing throughout game Positive and negative effects Music 0 Music 0 Very popular among teens listen 255 hoursday 0 Musicians are very influential to young people 0 Adolescents 0 1218 years old Transition from relative dependence to relative independence Forming their identities Developing own ideas Inclusion in group is important Learning about intimacy Music use increases 0 Changes in couse patterns 0 What do media quotdoquot for adolescents Arnett 1995 0 Entertainment 0 Identity formation 0 High sensation O Coping 0 Youth culture identification 0 Use and Gratifications of Music all age groups Lonsdale and North 2011 0 Positive Negative mood management 0 Diversion O Interpersonal relationship 0 Personal identity 0 Surveillance 0 Music Genre Stereotypes Rentfrow and gosling 2007 0 Classical Rock Religious Rap 0 Conservative Intelligent Religious Attractive Athletic Artistic OOOOOO