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chap 28 & 29

by: Laura Notetaker

chap 28 & 29 BSC 1011C

Laura Notetaker
GPA 3.0

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General Biology II chap 28 & 29
General Biology II
Amy Keagy
Class Notes
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This 36 page Class Notes was uploaded by Laura Notetaker on Thursday December 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 1011C at University of North Florida taught by Amy Keagy in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see General Biology II in Biology at University of North Florida.


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Date Created: 12/10/15
CH 28 HISTORY OF LIFE • Formation of the Universe…Earth? • Origins of Living cells? • Diversification of Life? • Fossil record often lacks transitional forms between two species • Is the fossil record simply incomplete? • Or does it accurately reflect evolution as it really occurs? The Pace of Evolution Two views of the pace of macroevolution CAMBRIAN EXPLOSION •Extinction • Facilitates evolution by opening adaptive zones • Extinction appears to have occurred at 2 different rates: • Background extinction at a steady rate • Mass extinctions • Mass extinctions • Five mass extinction events of many species and higher taxonomic groups • Major climate changes – (End-Permian) • Catastrophes such as meteorite impacts K-P Asteroid strike •Adaptive radiation • Speciation fills new ecological niches • New adaptive zones may appear when the environment changes • For example: one species colonizes an island and diversifies into new species Adaptive radiation The terCambrian refers to: A.A plant tissue B.A location on the early Earth C.A time period in geologic history D.A scientist who was involved with origins research E.A name for the most prevalent organisms of the time Which is most likely to be associated with the Cambrian Explosion? A. planetary motion B. the “Big Bang” forming the universe C. formation of water D. photosynthesis & oxygen buildup E. a large meteor strike What is the Cambrian Explosion? • Unicellular life forms for 3 billion years • Expansion of life forms (diversity, size, complexity) within 50 million years) What triggered the Cambrian Explosion? • Higher oxygen levels • Evolution of predation • New niches  more new niches • New genes  new bodies (Hox genes) Chapter 29 Prokaryotes Attenborough Nye-Discovery Molecular Classification Summary Table 29.1 Prokaryotic Features Unicellularity -Most are single-celled -Some can form complex biofilms Cell size -Most are less than 1 mm in diameter Genetic material -Single circular double-stranded DNA -Found in the nucleoid ABUNDANT & UBIQUITOUS! Prokaryotic Features Internal compartmentalization -No membrane-bounded organelles Cell division -Most divide by binary fission Genetic recombination -Occurs through horizontal gene transfer Which prefix best • Common shapes describes the arrangement of – Coccus the red “cocci” – Bacillus (rod-shaped) pictured below? A. Staphylo- – Spiral B. Strepto- C. Diplo- • Spirillum (rigid helix) D. Pseudo- • Spirochete (flexible helix) Which of the following cells posssess cell walls? A. Plant B. Animal C. Bacteria D. Some protists E. Fungi F. All except 1 of the above G. All except 2 of the above Which organic molecule forms ___________ A. Carbohydrates B. Lipids C. Proteins D. Nucleic acids Bacteria • Cell walls in Eubacteria – Gram-positive • Very thick peptidoglycan • Susceptible to penicillin – Gram-negative • Thin layer of peptidoglycan • Outer membrane • Penicillin is rarely effective • Pili – Protein structures that extend from the cell – Help bacteria adhere to surfaces Flagella Produce a rotary motion Basal body, hook, and filament Metabolic Diversity Reproduction • Genetic material – Circular DNA molecule – Plasmids • Asexual reproduction – Binary fission – Budding – Fragmentation Genetic Exchange • Transformation – Intake of DNA fragments • Transduction – Phage carries bacterial DNA between cells • Conjugation – Cells of different mating types • Many prokaryotes form endospores – Which can remain viable in harsh conditions for centuries Bacillus anthracis Archaea • Some are extremophiles • Extreme halophiles – Inhabit saturated salt solutions • Extreme thermophiles – Inhabit environments over 100°C Roles of Prokaryotes • Vital ecological functions – Decomposers – Fixing nitrogen for plants • Commercial Processes – Lactic acid bacteria – pickles, yogurt – Cheese Symbiotic Relationships • Many prokaryotes live with other organisms in symbiotic relationships such as mutualism and commensalism Beneficial Prokaryotes Bacteria are used in genetic engineering - “Biofactories” that produce various chemicals, including insulin and antibiotics Bacteria are used for bioremediation -Remove pollutants from water, air and soil -Exxon Valdez oil spill Beneficial Prokaryotes Pathogenic Prokaryotes • Prokaryotes cause about half of all human diseases – Lyme disease is an example Figure 27.16m Flesh eating bacteria Streptococcus pyogenes Credit: © Dr. David Phillips/Visuals Unlimited Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacteria that cause the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhea. Gonorrhea targets the cells of mucous membranes such as the surfaces of the urethra, vagina, cervix, fallopian tubes, anus, eyelids and throat. TEM. Dental Caries - Cavities Clostridium botulinum


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