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Week 15 Notes

by: Cassidy Zirko

Week 15 Notes Chem 141

Cassidy Zirko

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College Chemistry 1
Mark Cracolice (P)
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassidy Zirko on Thursday December 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 141 at University of Montana taught by Mark Cracolice (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see College Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at University of Montana.


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Date Created: 12/10/15
Week 15, Chem 141, Prof. Cracolice  Chapter 37: How are Chemical Changes in Solution Described? Part 1 12/4/15 37.1 What are Properties of Water Solutions?  Solution­ Homogenous Mixture   How does Electrical Conductivity of a Solution Relate to its Particulate Level  Composition? o Electrodes­ electrical cord attached to a battery and a light bulb  o 2 electrodes touch­ light bulb glows because there is a flow of electrons  o Solution contain ions­ much be away for electrons to flow  o Solid ionic substance made up of positively and negatively charge ions held in  fixed positions  o Electrolysis­ indication of ions that make up an electrical current in a solution  o Solutions of molecular compounds cant conduct electricity because they don’t  have ions  o Strong electrolyte­ good conductor  o Weak electrolyte­ poor conductor  o Nonelectrolyte­ doesn’t conduct electricity  o Electrolyte applied to solution thought which the current passes   How are Contents of a Solution Expressed Symbolically? o Ionic compound dissolved in water­ solution has water and ions  o Only conserved with reaction that will occur in water, assume there is always the  presence of water molecules  o Always include state symbols   Why are Some Acids Better Electrical Conductors than Others?  o Acid­ hydrogen bearing molecule or ion that releases a hydrogen ion in a water  solution  o Strong acid­ almost all of the molecules of the original compound converted to  ions   Major species­ ions, Minor Species­ unionized molecules  o Strong acids are excellent conductors of electricity  o Weak Acid­ only slightly ionize in solution   Major species­ unionized molecules, Minor Species­ ions  o Weak acids are poor conductors of electricity  o 7 strong acids­ HCl, HClO , 3ClO , H4r, HI, HNO , and3H SO 2 4 o Major species in solution are what appear in net ionic equations   How is Chemical Change in Solution Expressed Symbolically?  o Conventional Equation­ standard chemical equation that we have learned to  write used for stoichiometry  o Doesn’t describe reactants or products correctly u Week 15, Chem 141, Prof. Cracolice  o Total ionic equation­ replaces formulas of dissolved substances with major  species in solution  o Spectator ions (spectators)­ ions present at the scenes of the reaction but  experiences no chemical change, appears on both sides of the equation  o Net ionic equation­ equations where all spectators removed  o Shoes exactly what chemical change has taken place  Chapter 38: How are Chemical Changes in Solution Described? Part 2 12/7/15 38.1 How are Electron Transfer Reactions in solution described?   Single replacement reaction A+BX  B+AX  Protons or electrons are never destroyed in a reaction   Total charge of the reactants has to be equal to the total charge of the products   Redox reactions are electron transfer reactions­ electrons are transferred from one species to another   Activity series­ able to tell which molecules are more likely to give up electrons or if  they want to say a solid, used in predicting products in an single replacement reaction   Look at the order in which an element appears in the activity series, if element A has a  higher positon than element B, the A will replace B in the products to form AX 38.2 How are Double Replacement Solutions Described?   Double Replacement reaction: AX+BY AY+BX  How are Precipitation Reactions Described? o Ion combining reaction­ cation from one reactant combines with anion from  another to form a particular kind of product compound  o Precipitate­ a solid formed in a double replacement reaction, precipitation  reaction  o Solubility guide lines allow for prediction of products   How are Molecule Formation Reactions Described?  o Molecular Product­ reaction of an acid which leads to a combination of ions  instead of precipitate  o equations are written the same way  o molecular product wants to break into ions  o water and weak acids are two kinds of molecular products  o neutralization reaction are most common kinds of molecular products  o water is not ionized in liquid state o remember strong acids and weak acids  o weak acids are not broken into molecules  o acid will contribute hydrogen ion to molecular products  Week 15, Chem 141, Prof. Cracolice  o identifying molecular product reaction  reactant is a strong acid and product is  water or a weak acid   How are Reactants with Unstable Products Described?  o Carbonic acid is a product, it breaks into water and carbon dioxide gas  o Sulfurous acid is a product  it splits into water and sulfur dioxide  o Ammonium hydroxide is product (doesn’t actually exist)  forms water and  ammonia  o Need to be able to recognize the three unstable products   How are Reactions with Undissolved Reactants described?  o Sometime solid is dissolved into something  o Compound insoluble in water but will react with acid  o There doesn’t always have to be a reactions that occurs  Chapter 39: How are Solution Quantities Related in Chemical Change? 12/9/15  Super important to understand macroscopic measurable quantities are part of general  relationship   What are Stoichiometric Relationships Among Species in Solution  o Convert the quantity of given species to moles  o Convert the moles of given species to moles of wanted species  o Convert the moles of wanted species into quantity units required  o Use molarity as a conversion in stoichiometry  o It is okay to stay in miliunits if you are beginning and ending in mL   What is the Titration? o Titration­ careful addition of one solution to another by means of a device can  measure delivered volume precisely o Indicator­ changes color to show complete neutralization  o Standardize­ finding concentration for use in titrations  o When dealing with a hydrate, water doesn’t need to be in equation but is  accounted for in weight  


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