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The American Civil War

by: Imran Rashik

The American Civil War HIST 1311 - 009

Imran Rashik
GPA 4.0
Kristen D Burton

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Everything about the American civil war is right here !
Kristen D Burton
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Imran Rashik on Thursday December 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1311 - 009 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Kristen D Burton in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES TO 1870 in History at University of Texas at Arlington.


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Date Created: 12/10/15
The American Civil War After the election of 1860 Abraham Lincoln won and was inaugurated in March 4 1861 As Lincoln came into office the main issue that needed to be dealt with was not longer slavery but rather secession He wanted to preserve the union and no state could lawfully leave the union He also pledged to protect all of the federal forts located in southern states Fort Sumter A fort located in the Charleston harbor in South Carolina Confederate troops surrounded the fort and cut off the access to outside supplies in April 12 1861 Lincoln ordered ships to go to Sumter and give support Jefferson Davis ordered the confederate troops to block any attempts to resupply Sumter Confederate shelling of Fort Sumter began in the morning of April 12 The attack lasted about 34 hours Soon fort Sumter fell as the troops there were out of ammunition Marked the beginning of the US civil war It convinced other southern states to join the cause of secession On April 14 Lincoln called 75000 troops from the loyal states On April 19th he ordered a naval blockade to cut off the south cut of the Mississippi This later was known as the Anaconda plan in which the northern states would try to strangle the southern states Within a matter of months the cost of basic goods in the south began to skyrocket Dramatic in ation incurred upon the price of food The border states debated about whether they should join the confederacy This was because they did not have as many slaves as the lower south since they did not have a lot of cotton plantations Plus the lower south pulled in slaves from these border states for which slavery was not prevalent here So the reason to join the confederacy was not as strong Later they stayed under the union Regional advantages of the Union during the war 23 states 22 million population Produced 97 percent of the nation s firearms 96 percent of railroad equipment Confederates had 11 states Population of 9 million people with 4 million slaves The confederacy did have a geographic advantage and better military leaders who gained experience in the Mexican American war Union had a 4 to 1 advantage over the confederacy Industrialization was also the key to the victory of the union The confederacy had to look for foreign aid from Britain and France to stand a chance Britain had the intention of supporting the confederacy due to the cotton trade but it needed to be convinced that the confederacy could win To prove this the confederacy had to win a victory in the north The first Battle of Bull Runthe battle of Monasses July 21 1861 This was one of the bloodiest battles in US history For the Union 460 killed 1124 wounded and 1312 missing For the confederate 387 killed 1582 wounded and 13 missing This battle indicated how the war was going to go US congress recruited about 500 000 men at the outset of the war After the battle of bullrun they recruited 500 000 more just for the union Jefferson Davis called up for 100000 people at first These were 12 month volunteers After the 12 months many of them were not considering reenlisting Forming armies First confederate draft April 6 1862 all white male citizens aged 18 to 35 were enlisted for 3 years Planters were exempted from the draft Someone could also exempt himself by paying 500 dollars This caused resentments because people thought it was a rich man s war but a poor man s fight 1864 men aged 1750 First Union draft March 3 1863 Avoid service by paying 300 dollars 1863 men aged 2045 A confederate general named Robert E Lee tried to gain foreign support by attacking the north in the battle of Antietam The Battle of Antietam Took place on September 17th 1862 in Antietam creek in Sharpsburg Confederate forces outnumbered 2 to 1 Shocking defeat for the confederates Bloodiest single day of battle in the war 6400 soliders on both sides killed and 17000 wounded Union victory emboldened A Lincoln to issue the emancipation proclamation on Sept 22 1862 The Emancipation Proclamation Proclamation declared in Sept 22 1862 by Abraham Lincoln He waited for a great union victory to issue this proclamation It shifted the entire purpose of the war from the preservation of the union to ending slavery War fought over morality and the continued existence of slavery not solely over preventing secessionIf the war took place to end slavery Britain or France would not offer outside support The message of this proclamation was that on January 1 1863 all slaves in the rebel states would be legally free It did not apply to any states in the Union Unfortunately there weren t many slaves in the union states and also the rebel states did not accept this proclamation So not many slaves were freed But some slaves did use this to claim their freedom Opened up opportunity for people of color to enlist in the military Union organized all black military units Fredrick Douglas was very supportive of enlisting black people in the military as military service was the first step towards the path of citizenship Over 180000 free blacks responded to recruiting efforts About 38000 of these black troops lost their lives Military service was different for black soldiers than white soldiers as racist notions were prevalent across the US No black soldiers were allowed to be a commissioned officer Many were paid significantly less than white soldiers But this did not deter blacks from joining military service The confederate government however prohibited participation of slaves in the military But the population count of the confederacy caused a disadvantage The war affected both men and women Women offered as much support as they could in the war So they disguised themselves as men and served anyway It loosened the traditional restrain that was placed on women in the 19th century As men left to fight in the war women took up spots in certain factories and businesses Some 20 000 women served as nurses Clara Burton was a well known nurse who later found the red cross Some women acted as spies for example Harriet Tubman Siege of Vicksburg located right off the Mississippi river The Union could split the confederacy into two is the siege was successful They surrounded the town and cut it of from May 18 to July 4th of 1863 People in Vicksburg ran out of food So Robert E Lee wanted to divert the attention of the Union from Vicksburg as it was a strategic spot He invaded the north again In June of 1863 Lee moved his army to the north Confederate forces entered the town of Gettysburg Pennsylvania When they entered Gettysburg Confederate forces ran into Union cavalry on June 30th Battle of Gettysburg began of July 1st and it was a 3 day battle It was a turning point in the civil war Although the confederate forces pushed the union forces out at first the union hastened with reinforcements On July 3rd Lee staked everything in one final assault against the Union centre This was called the Picket s charge led by General George Picket The confederate troops emerged into a field controlled by the union artillery So they were mowed down because of the union artillery It was a devastating defeat for the confederates The confederate commander surrendered the town in Vicksburg and gave it up to the Union This allowed Union to increase the pressure on the confederacy on multiple fronts The battle of Gettysburg was a deliberate failure for the confederacy Both armies lost 46000 to 51000 soldiers in this battle Gettysburg Address was given by President Lincoln in November 19 1863 to commemorate the cemetery built after the battle of Gettysburg Lincoln became convinced that the abolition of slavery was not just morally correct but also strategically possible after so many colored people served in the military He felt a constitutional amendment was needed to protect the abolition The 13th amendment of 1864 Voted on in the house of representatives on Jan 31 1865 Ratified on December 6 1865 Stated Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall exist within the US and Congress shall have power to enforce this article In the end the union started a total war against the south and the confederates were finally defeated on December 1864


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