Hellenistic Period 20542-04
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Donae Pollard on Saturday April 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 20542-04 at Clayton State University taught by Dr. Emanuel J. Abston in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see SURVEY OF U.S. HISTORY (Since 1877) in History at Clayton State University.
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Date Created: 04/02/16
THE HELLENISTIC AGE 300-‐30 B.C Monday, March 21, 2016 12:45 PM PHILIP II OF MACEDONIA • He was impressed by the Greeks • He unites Macedonia The Greeks refused to follow him so he ends up invading them. He left Sparta along just because they were considered not to be messed with. They was still allowed to run their city states but just under Phillip. His son is Alexander and Plato sent Phillip Aristotle to tutor Alexander The Great. Olympia is also his mother. At that time everybody hated the Persians. They decided to conquer Persia for revenge but before that can happen, he gets assassinated. Theories of who killed Phillip II; was that it was his wife Olympia, his best friend, or Persia because they found out that he was trying to attack. Alexander the Great becomes in charge and when he reigned he kills everybody except his mother who he might have thought assassinated his father. He goes on to try to invade Persia. He makes two stops that are very revealing, the first detour tooy. Alexander love the epic of The Illiad and he believes that the story was true. His mother had also told him that his cousin was Achilles so he tried to imitate him. The second detour is even more revealing in a little Gno rdian. Alexander cuts the Gordian knot which was the legend. He defeats the Persians. Then he goes to EGYPT because of an oracle. The first city he founds is in Egypt and he names it after himself called Alexandria. He then becomes the pharaoh of Egypt. Alexandria become apart of the Hellenistic Period. He founded 30 cities on his campaign going east. He defeats the Persians the last time in Gaugamela. He marries Princess Roxanne and she has his son , he does this to create an allies with Persia. Then he goes to India and helps unite the Mauran Dynasty. His troops revolted against him Alexandria become apart of the Hellenistic Period. He founded 30 cities on his campaign going east. He defeats the Persians the last time in Gaugamela. He marries Princess Roxanne and she has his son , he does this to create an allies with Persia. Then he goes to India and helps unite the Mauran Dynasty. His troops revolted against him because they no longer wanted to keep invading the east. One these campaigns he was suppose to be spreading Hellenistic culture. His wife told him that he was not acting like a king. Many of his followers felt like he was becoming big headed, and too preconized. He had his writer killed because he wrote in his biography that he was becoming to Persian like. To the north was th truscansthey learned how to build roads and to the south were the Greeks and their learned arts from them. Then he dies right before tying to start a new conquest. Starting with his dead is the beginning of the Hellenistic period. After the death they had 3 kingdoms: Antigonus and Demetrius-‐Macedonia and Greece Seleucus-‐Syria and the old persian empire Ptolemy-‐Egypt Audio 1 Audio recording started: 1:30 PM Monday, March 21, 2016 Alexandria Egypt: This was the major seaport, They also had the worlds biggest library called the museum the god where they got the inspiration for the name museum was called Musesand Cliowas the god of history. Hellenistic Science Euclid, The elements of geometry this is study of geometry Eratosthenescame up the circumference of the earth; the distance of the earth he took measurement and angle of the shadow. Christopher Columbus was not the first one to believe that the earth was round. The Greeks had new that already! Archimedes, On Plane Equilibriums: he discover the principal of using levis and pullys. The pull of force. The archimedes screw, is something else he invented, hydrostatics the study of water. Christopher Columbus was not the first one to believe that the earth was round. The Greeks had new that already! Archimedes, On Plane Equilibriums: he discover the principal of using levis and pullys. The pull of force. The archimedes screw, is something else he invented, hydrostatics the study of water. Stages of the Roman History ( the generals created their own dynasties) • Foundation of the city of Rome • The Rise of the Republics • The roman empire this splits into two empires -‐Western Empire -‐Eastern Empire The main way they tried to unite the Greek culture, they found brand new Greek cities and bring in Macedonians to live there. 3 Phases of Roman Expansion -‐Rome started to conqueror them the Eutrasians (Unification of Italy) They were the biggest road builders in the world. -‐Collision with Carthage (Punic Wars) When Rome takes over Italy they clash with Carthage which were the Phoenicians The Romans won all the Punic Wars 3rd Punic war 40 years later they landed troops and burned Carthrage also know as the revenge. They turned them into slaves, then the roman owned a part of north Africa. Conquest of Hellenistic Kingdoms They enslaved thousands of Greeks and sent them back to Italy and the Seleucids were next. Romans are expanding fast, which ends up destroying their republic, The romans had the same army structure Latifundias; which are big estates. Italy had the most slaves. Tiberius and Gaius Graccus, they ended up being assinated Two major forms of entertainment -‐chariot races -‐Gladiator game 1st attempt to stop these harsh lifestyle was by Tiberius and Gaius Tiberius and Gaius Graccus, they ended up being assinated Two major forms of entertainment -‐chariot races -‐Gladiator game 1st attempt to stop these harsh lifestyle was by Tiberius and Gaius 2nd attempt was to pay the army so people could start having a more civilized life it changes the dynamic The loyalty are the army shifted The End of Roman republic Audio 2 Audio recording started: 1:46 PM Wednesday, March 23, 2016 6,000 were crucified while trying to escape to scare other slaves. Julius Caesar it takes him 9 years to conquered the Gaul's which is France. The Gaul's did not want to be conquered. He adds territory and he has books that explain his conquest. He ends up being really popular. "Crossing the Rubecan", when they done something they cant undo. In the end he wins. Dictator: was not a bad person and the roman would appoint someone for 6 months. Cincinnatus which is name after Cincinnati Ohio. Julius Caesar was appointed 3 times and soon became dictator for life. He thinks has save the country but 60 senators said they didn't have a dictator and they all vowed that they will kill him (stabbed) According to William Shakespeare his best friend said to him before he died "This is what happens to tyrants" This becomes the end of the republic. Two candidates for next dictator - Gaius Octavian " Augustus" this was caesar nephew - Mark Antony which is Caesar general So they decide to separate the empire and rule Octavius rules the west and Antony rules the east. - Mark Antony which is Caesar general So they decide to separate the empire and rule Octavius rules the west and Antony rules the east. Mark Antony ends up marrying Cleopatra, they revolt against Octavian. The battle of Actium happened and mark Antony loses and him and his wife commit suicide. Now Octavian becomes the sole ruler of the roman empire. The Pax Romana for 200 years nobody is fired. The roman empire is populated by 3 million and they had two universal language Greek and Latin. They had the highest standard of living. Part of that was because the economy is very complex. You could travel safely, nobody is invading and taxes are low. Export is at its best! Pax Romana is a great time. The five good emperors the best one is , The first four when they died, they believe their kids are stupid so they would adopt somebody who was competent. Marcus Aurelius-‐ Some accomplishments of the Romans: -‐invented Law -‐Engineering They are very practical The were the only ones who made domes , they also invented concrete. Looking at their Pantheons and the Coliseum. The soldiers of Roman really built the walls and roads and aqueducts. The Aqueducts are all over and these were water pipes. The romans changed sculptures by just forming the heads not the body. Virgil was the first roman epic and they try to connect the story of the Iliad to the sequel of " The Aeneid" The Aqueducts are all over and these were water pipes. The romans changed sculptures by just forming the heads not the body. Virgil was the first roman epic and they try to connect the story of the Iliad to the sequel of " The Aeneid" Christianity began in the roman empire during Pax Romana. The founder of Christianity was Jesus of Nazareth's and he was born in the roman empire. It is the fastest growing religion today. The gospels were the life of the teachings of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John were the four gospels. The Pax Romana is important because he is crucified by the roman empire. Paul in the Hebrew tradition, he started churches all over the Roman empire. One of his trips to Athens, this is consider a major turning point in history.
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