Week 14: Post WWI and WWII
Week 14: Post WWI and WWII ST 150 - 20
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Savannah Tipton on Thursday December 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ST 150 - 20 at Ball State University taught by John Stanley Marsh (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see The West in the World in History at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 12/10/15
After WWI Peace Armistice: ceasefire Treaty terms not drawn up until later in spring, Treaty of Versailles: one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand Treaty of Versailles o Germany lost 1/8 of its territory o Germany lost overseas colonies o Germany military limited Army no more than 100,000 troops Limitations on tanks, submarines, etc. Not allowed to have a draft o Germany must pay “reparations” Germany has to pay for damages such as bridges, farms, etc. But NOT all costs of the war Specified to be $32 billion payable in gold or US dollars MYTH: Germany prints money in the 20s to pay off reparations – not possible reparations only payable in US dollars or gold TRUTH: they printed money to pay back their own people for things like war bonds New Territories Russian Empire collapses; replaced by Soviet Union Poland, now an independent nation Landlocked, took land from Russian Empire and then Germany so there could be the Polish corridor; access to the sea Austria Hungary: broken up o New nation of Austria (German speaking) o Nation of Hungary set up o Czechoslovakia created on treaty table (made up of Czechs and Slovaks) Created Yugoslavia Ottoman empire collapses; new nation of Turkey and other nations Europe of 1922 United States didn’t ratify the Treaty of Versailles o Senate didn’t ratify, after the president signed… because America was going into a period of foreign isolationism Tour: Period between WWI and WWII Soviet Union During WWI 2 revolutions Attempts to impose a Marxist society o Take over factories, nothing personal, etc. o Said they were starting a world revolution for the people o Department of the Soviet government sent to overthrow other governments to spread Marxism amongst nations o Russians resisted Cities went quickly Countryside resisted ongoing communist take overs Vladimir Lenin dies 1924 Stalin takes over o “under the leadership of the Great Stalin – forward to Communism” o Killing many of his own people o 1930s kills off many scientists o Kills off many of the military high command o Ultimately kills off every single other Bolsheviks Stalin does put Bolsheviks on trial, to then persecute them o Forced Collectivization of Agriculture: seizing of farmland and murder of about 10 million Stalin went in killed leaders in the town with his secret intel Then send army in If there’s resistance… slaughter whoever wont comply Send survivors off to various death camps Trains and trains waiting in Siberia to be sent off About 10 million slaughtered to get control of the farms People fought back with all they had… NOT a match for Stalin’s army After WWI Soviet scraps up tons of territory and essentially loots it… take apart factories and essentially move them – boosts soviet economy into cold war race – economy eventually plunges back down again o US has to help Soviet with grain supplements The United States In foreign policy: US is back to isolationism – we will trade but not involved in alliances, downsize military, troops at home Economics o US has a really good decade in the 20s – roaring 20s o Stock market crash in 1929 – Great Depression o 1930s worldwide depression o Despite economic stress of depression the political system is NOT overthrown Constitution stays No military dictatorship o Back in Europe there is no good roaring 20s So when Europe sees the Great Depression things are even worse Some countries not overthrown Britain, Czechoslovakia, etc. Most European nations have great political and economic turmoil o Many governments overthrown or consumed by others o Spain not a military dictatorship o Italy taken over by fascists led by Mussolini o Austria taken over by Hitler o Poland once a democracy not a military dictatorship o Germany starts as a republic then taken over by Nazis Germany Kaiser government collapses Republic set up o Great deal of problems War debt to pay back to citizens Reparations to pay Allies in control of key industrial areas Many dead o Politically republic never stable Multi-party system Radical factions Communists Fascists o To deal with debt the government printed money in Jan in 1923; used to pay off war bonds citizens bought – inflation – more you print the more inflation you have So bad paper money becomes near worthless Working class paid twice a day – by 5 the morning pay would be worthless In the end war bond debt technically paid off o Attempts to get a stable democratic system set up Opportunity for Hitler and the Nazis Hitler and the Nazis o Try to take over Germany and fail; in jail for 9 month – so many trying to overthrow the government there was no space to hold them o Hitler wrote “Mein Kampf” meaning “My Struggle” which no one read until the Nazi takeover The book spells out Hitler’s plan; and who he blames o Nazis then try to come to power through the political system Rallies, publicity, speeches, etc. Even with Hitler’s speaking ability o Nazis get 2.3 % of the vote Depression hits Mass unemployment, economic hardship, people desperate o 1932 election – Hitler runs for president and gets 32% of the vote o The president Paul Von Hindenburg Von Hindenburg brought out of retirement after WWI to serve Thought they needed to bring Hitler in as the chancellor (make decisions for government) Hitler uses various excuses and manufactures crisis to take power and set himself up as dictator o Hitler a master in many ways of propaganda and its power, radio, rallies Tells his ministers to tell big lies – the people will fall for the big lies; just repeat it everywhere they go Hate against the Jews Hate against democracy itself, the Treaty of Versailles Race hierarchy – Arian race – above all others o Foreign policy Hitler comes to power in 1933 By 1935 he begins breaking the Treaty of Versailles France and Britain protest o Hitler builds their army; a draft o Ships, tanks, etc. 1936 sends troops to where they are not allowed; in the Rhineland No one takes action against him 1937 forms an alliance with fascist Italy Where name axis powers comes from in WWII 1928 Hitler annexed Austria (says he was invited in, there to stop violence, etc.) Austrian president complains to league of nations – NO action is taken Appeasement: Britain and France wanted to avoid war at all costs Continually giving in to appease Hitler so they wouldn’t have another war; discussions, meetings, diplomacy – but again no action is taken Hitler then wants the western portion of Czechoslovakia Wants the German speaking people; claims they are oppressed there 1938 Munich Conference Discussion over Hitler’s demands British prime minister says they worked an agreement with Hitler and there will be peace Germans send troops in to take over part of Czechoslovakia – and keeps going and takes over the rest of the country Privately Hitler refers to treaties as pieces of paper Bought him time Got him concessions Meant nothing World belongs to the strong, he was the strong 1939 world shocked by the news that Nazi Germany signed a non-aggression pact Non-aggression pact: if there is a war we won’t fight each other o The world did not know they were planning a war o Germans get western 2/3 Poland, Russia gets the rest Hitler hated Stalin and vice versa September 1939 beginning of WWII in Europe with the invasion of Poland Nazi Germany invades Poland from the north, south, and west Russian Soviet Union Red Army invades Eastern Poland WWII The beginning Invasion of Poland France and Britain declare war on Germany If people want mutual peace then they can solve it; but when one side of a negotiation doesn’t want peace you will not get anywhere Starts in Europe Germans are extremely successful in earl stages of the war; them and the Soviets roll right over Poland Blitzkrieg “lighting war”: a military tactic designed to create disorganization among enemy forces through the use of mobile forces and locally concentrated firepower. Its successful execution results in short military campaigns, which preserves human lives and limits the expenditure of artillery. BIG Shocker: when Germany invades France; it is done and out of the war in 2 months by the German war machine Move into Norway, and to the Balkans Only ally standing in their way is Britain – only challenge is getting to Britain o For Hitler to knockout Britain he plans a way to get there o String of aerial bombs back and forth: known as Battle of Britain Goes on for several months British having trouble getting planes in the air and running out of pilots Hitler gets impatient and bombs British cities; British air force recovers o Hitler loses interest; his main interest is living space to expand; taking that land from lesser people to the east Germans launch surprise assault in the Summer of 1941 against Russia o Ultimately can’t this: not prepared for weather conditions and other challenges Hitler has France and continues to try to take the Soviet Union United States We are neutral want to stay out of it Does not jump into war to stop Japanese expansion but did exert economic pressure on Japan In those days US exported a lot of oil to Japan; stopped sending it Japan has interest in more than just China – they are looking at resources beyond China The British, the French, the Dutch fighting for their homeland o US Navy is the only one force that could project force into this area to stop Japan Japanese come up with a plan o Decide to make a surprise attack on the American fleet at Pearl Harbor to make America pull back from involvement in the war o Not everyone agrees with this plan, Japanese goes on with this plan December 7, 1941 Attack on Pearl Harbor: hundreds of Japanese fighter planes attacked the American naval base at Pearl Harbor near Honolulu, Hawaii o Now Americans join WWII o American industrial might a key factor in WWII American production outpaces the rest of the world by double WWII on a much bigger scale than WWI Germans finally beaten and surrender in Spring of 1945 And then Asia in 1945 Post WWII Period where US is one of the two superpowers in the world There was no American plan or strategy to get bases around the world – that came about by fighting WWII o Basically when the dust settles post WWII Britain and France are nearly destroyed o United States and Soviet Union only ones left standing The US has military around the world with many bases o What do we do about it? Do we downsize again, like WWI? US opts to continue to participate in the management of world affairs to a certain extend o Unusual features of WWII is what the US did with former allies and enemies US didn’t keep territory US used its money to rebuild liberated allies to reestablish governments US helped reestablish enemies as well Things they once paid to destroy, they pay to rebuild o Lessons to be learned from WWI If you leave an unsettled region it is going to lead to destabilization, dictatorships, communism, etc. So better to use money to help others get established Best option for the world economy Also seen as “right thing to do” moral decision No other example of a victorious nation rebuilding allies and enemies after war US in a position to make many decisions post WWII o If anyone else had won… would Germans do the same? Or Japanese? Now the US has ability to exert power throughout the world o Can’t be everywhere at once o US adopts Containment policy: don’t let communism spread further; but don’t invade communist nations Containment, associated with the American diplomat George F. Kennan, was the central post-war concept of the US and its allies in dealing with the Soviet Union. Containment kept the cold war from being a hot war. o Send in military supplies at various times o US forms an alliance with western European nations NATO: An alliance of countries from North America and Europe committed to fulfilling the goals of the North Atlantic Treaty signed on 4 April 1949 When do we intervene? o Easy if we are openly attacked… o Challenging situations post WWII with US in a position as a superpower around the world
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