GEOG Notes week of December 7th
GEOG Notes week of December 7th GEOG 1003
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by SophieSol on Thursday December 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1003 at George Washington University taught by Rain, D in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Society and Environment in Geography at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 12/10/15
FINAL EXAM QUESTION What is the affect of going to be on your hometowns Response to climate change 0 Chapter 12 in the book last chapter for exam 0 Stewart Brand rethinking extinction 0 Likes provoking people Class Notes 0 Evaluation and regulation 0 What is the value of a human life 911 questions this Externalities or external costs 0 Portion of costs of producing a product or service that are passed onto society at large not included in price of product le cost of health care for cancer not included in price of cigarettes cost of toxic waste cleanup not included in chemical pdces 0 Economic activities like agriculture or transportation produce pollution which imposes a cost to society at large like health care or environmental cleanup 0 Example tires Tire disposal fees 0 Pile of tires good breeding environment for mosquitos o West Nile malaria etc Attaching these costs to costs of tire disposal would make the fee quite costly External costs and GDP 0 GDP gross domestic product The market value of all goods and services by the economy of a given region in a given year Really is just a proxy measure of national wellbeing Don t take into account the external costs of pollution or depletion of nonrenewable resources 0 If there is a bad chemical spill you are counting the chemicals that didn t spill from industrial times and then also what did Environmental cleanup and health costs disamenities are considered High GDP values do not re ect wellbeing of a country if they are a result of environmental degradation Herman Daly stop counting the consumption of natural capital as income Costbene t analysis CBA o A tool used by economists in environmental decisionmaking that compares expected costs to expected bene ts associated with a project activity or government policy Came into use in the 18905 with the idea that different kinds of government programs bene ts outweighed costs Examples use of pesticides pollution control dams How do costs of dams measure to bene ts Before a decision is made the costs are compared to the bene ts 0 le cost of a dam would include construction loss of wildlife habitat and farmland 0 Many dams are deconditioned can t be maintained etc 0 Bene ts less ooding irrigation cheaper electricity recreational opportunities 0 Both must be calculated over the lifetime of the project CBA of farmland Bene ts production amounts 0 Dead pool 0 ln dams so much silt that it could cause an earthquake 0 Challenges valuing health life and beauty Both optimal pollution level and costbene t analysis sometimes require that we place a monetary value on things like health biodiversity and beauty Cost of a loss of a shery human life scenic view Value placed on a human life has varied from 0 to several million dollars may be based on life insurance estimates legal settlements and earning power httphumanforsalecom 0 Clean Air Act Stricter regulations to protect health and environment 14 billion cost to bene t of 110 billion depending on how life health and ecosystems are valued one way to estimate values is willingness to pay 0 how much people are prepared to pay for environmental protection or health ie WTP for deer hunting is the cost of a Hcense 0 problems depends on income easy to answer until you really have to pay 0 Distribution of costs and bene ts in space and time is unequal Not equally distributed in space 0 Some people and places bene t from a service 0 le with a dam electricity and ood control 0 Others are displaced and experience loss of land or recreation Not equally distributed in time 0 Present generation gets bene ts while future generations pay costs example of nuclear waste 0 Discount rates Bene ts are much harder to assess than costs especially over time lf costs and bene ts are calculated into the future discount rates are used to estimate future bene ts today Proper discount rate should represent the opportunity cost of what else could be done with the same investment 0 Cost of not doing an alternative PV present value 0 Environmental Law 0 Need to look at Federal state local levels 0 Important method of regulating the human use of the environment courts Congress executive rulings and proclamations 0 Statutory law laws passed by legislaturescongress Implemented by for example EPA DNR executive branches Lay out the legal responsibilities to the environment 0 Common Law 0 Based on past legal dcisions by the courts precedents of basic principles and rules often determined by lawsuits and court rangs Can sue for an injunction force cleanup cease operations enforce a statute Can sue for damages loss of health income etc Can sue government to force the enforcement of statutory laws Sue for injunction most common 0 Need STANDING In nature no lawers so you must have legal standing 0 Can say quotI suffer from this particular thing and it s not fairquot 0 Must show damage to person or property Case of Mineral King Valley Sierra club sued to stop a Disney ski development 0 Supreme court ruled against it but William 0 Douglas stated that people should have the right to represent the interests of the environment MK Valley became Sequoia National Park Justice Douglass saved the Canal as well 0 Class Action lawsuits 0 Much time money and evidence are needed to bring a lawsuit 0 Now many private and public interest environmental law bodies le class action lawsuits on behalf of groups Examples 0 Environment defense fund 0 Natural resources defense council 0 Past question Tiger woods killed a tree by crashing into it 0 Replacement costs 0 Be an Advocate for the Environment 0 Represent your client in court Louisiana wetlands Forests management for paper industry Waterways polluted by CAFOs
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