New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

BISC Notes Week of December 30th

by: SophieSol

BISC Notes Week of December 30th BISC 1005

Marketplace > George Washington University > Biological Sciences > BISC 1005 > BISC Notes Week of December 30th
GPA 3.92

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Here are my notes from the week of Dec. 30th in BISC
The Biology of Nutrition and Health
Scully, T
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in The Biology of Nutrition and Health

Popular in Biological Sciences

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by SophieSol on Thursday December 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BISC 1005 at George Washington University taught by Scully, T in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see The Biology of Nutrition and Health in Biological Sciences at George Washington University.


Reviews for BISC Notes Week of December 30th


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 12/10/15
 Cell cycle o Cells produced during the process of cell division o G :0cell will perform its normal duties o G :1Cell gets ready to duplicate o CHECKPOINT  Cell can either be destroyed or can continue into cell cycle  Problems can be identified here, and can either be fixed or not  If cannot be fixed, kills cell o S: replicate DNA o G :2increase again (size and stuff) o CHECKPOINT  Cell can either die or finish cycle o M phase: make two new cells  When the cell cycle goes wrong, leads to cancer  If you require 2,000 calories to fuel your body each day, about how long would the energy drink fuel you? o 2 hours  2000/24hrs in a day = 84  Signals for cell growth o Positive growth regulators  Proto-oncogenes  “Accelerators” o Say to come out of G ph0se and to go to G 1 cells (turns on cell cycle) o Negative growth regulators  Tumor suppressor genes  “Brakes”  Variety of repair mechanisms  Check for mistakes in DNA  Check for mistakes in cell components  The wrong message: Cancer o Mutation: change in the DNA sequence o Two groups of genes implicated in cancer o Accelerator gets stuck  Proto-oncogene  Becomes oncogenes when hyperactive because of mutations o Brakes fail  Tumor suppressor genes  Don’t function properly  The wrong message: tumor vs cancer o Cancer is NOT a one step process o A single cell  Divides unrestrained can lead to a cell mass called a tumor  A benign tumor is confined to the original site  Angiogenesis increases blood supply to tumor cells, enabling them to proliferate  Sends out messages from the tumor to recruit blood cells o Tumor gets fed  Malignant cancer invade other tissues by entering the blood supply to lymph nodes  Metastatic/metastasis/metastasize o Gene mutations  Tumor suppressor genes are negative growth regulators that restrain cell division and migration by  Inhibiting the cell cycle/mitosis  Stimulating repair of damaged DNA  Promoting cell adhesion- keeping the cell where it should be  Controlling anchorage dependence- keeping the cell where it should be  Preventing angiogenesis o A multi-step process  Example colon cancer  Early polyp: o Mutation of proto-oncogene = encogene  Polyp: o Mutation of tumor suppressor gene  Late polyp: o Inactivation of p53 tumor suppressor  Malignant tumor o Inactivation of another tumor suppressor that allows for angiogenesis and metastasis  What is lactose intolerance? o Lack of lactase production  Cancer cells: good cells gone bad o Cancer accounts for over a half-million deaths each year o There are more than 8 million Americans diagnosed with cancer at any one time o Estimated cost of treating cancer is over 100 billion each year  Biopsy o Removal of a portion of the tissue o Cell shape, size, surface, genes are detected  Most cancer is not hereditary o Environment o Age = increased mutations o Result  Sequential mutations in both proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes  P53 is mutated in more than half of all cancers  Targeted destruction o Challenge: selectively destroy malignant cells  Cryosurgery and hormone therapy are used to treat abnormal or cancerous cells in a small region  Radiation and chemotherapy are standard cancer treatments that affect both cancerous and healthy cells  More selective cancer therapies are being tested in clinical trials  Epigenetic drugs  Gene therapies


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.