BISC Notes Week of December 30th
BISC Notes Week of December 30th BISC 1005
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by SophieSol on Thursday December 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BISC 1005 at George Washington University taught by Scully, T in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see The Biology of Nutrition and Health in Biological Sciences at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 12/10/15
Cell cycle o Cells produced during the process of cell division o G :0cell will perform its normal duties o G :1Cell gets ready to duplicate o CHECKPOINT Cell can either be destroyed or can continue into cell cycle Problems can be identified here, and can either be fixed or not If cannot be fixed, kills cell o S: replicate DNA o G :2increase again (size and stuff) o CHECKPOINT Cell can either die or finish cycle o M phase: make two new cells When the cell cycle goes wrong, leads to cancer If you require 2,000 calories to fuel your body each day, about how long would the energy drink fuel you? o 2 hours 2000/24hrs in a day = 84 Signals for cell growth o Positive growth regulators Proto-oncogenes “Accelerators” o Say to come out of G ph0se and to go to G 1 cells (turns on cell cycle) o Negative growth regulators Tumor suppressor genes “Brakes” Variety of repair mechanisms Check for mistakes in DNA Check for mistakes in cell components The wrong message: Cancer o Mutation: change in the DNA sequence o Two groups of genes implicated in cancer o Accelerator gets stuck Proto-oncogene Becomes oncogenes when hyperactive because of mutations o Brakes fail Tumor suppressor genes Don’t function properly The wrong message: tumor vs cancer o Cancer is NOT a one step process o A single cell Divides unrestrained can lead to a cell mass called a tumor A benign tumor is confined to the original site Angiogenesis increases blood supply to tumor cells, enabling them to proliferate Sends out messages from the tumor to recruit blood cells o Tumor gets fed Malignant cancer invade other tissues by entering the blood supply to lymph nodes Metastatic/metastasis/metastasize o Gene mutations Tumor suppressor genes are negative growth regulators that restrain cell division and migration by Inhibiting the cell cycle/mitosis Stimulating repair of damaged DNA Promoting cell adhesion- keeping the cell where it should be Controlling anchorage dependence- keeping the cell where it should be Preventing angiogenesis o A multi-step process Example colon cancer Early polyp: o Mutation of proto-oncogene = encogene Polyp: o Mutation of tumor suppressor gene Late polyp: o Inactivation of p53 tumor suppressor Malignant tumor o Inactivation of another tumor suppressor that allows for angiogenesis and metastasis What is lactose intolerance? o Lack of lactase production Cancer cells: good cells gone bad o Cancer accounts for over a half-million deaths each year o There are more than 8 million Americans diagnosed with cancer at any one time o Estimated cost of treating cancer is over 100 billion each year Biopsy o Removal of a portion of the tissue o Cell shape, size, surface, genes are detected Most cancer is not hereditary o Environment o Age = increased mutations o Result Sequential mutations in both proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes P53 is mutated in more than half of all cancers Targeted destruction o Challenge: selectively destroy malignant cells Cryosurgery and hormone therapy are used to treat abnormal or cancerous cells in a small region Radiation and chemotherapy are standard cancer treatments that affect both cancerous and healthy cells More selective cancer therapies are being tested in clinical trials Epigenetic drugs Gene therapies