Unit 4 Notes
Popular in Elements of Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Moriah Cheng on Thursday December 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1113 at University of Oklahoma taught by Jenel Cavazos in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Elements of Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 12/10/15
Chapter 13: Social Psychology Person Perception: How Do We Form Impressions of Others o Attribution Theory: we can make attributions about the behavior of others based on: Internal/external causes Attribution Errors o Fundamental attribution error: overestimating the importance of internal traits and underestimating the importance of external traits Lessens with closer relationships Person Perception Errors o False consensus effect: overestimating the degree to which everyone else thinks or acts the way we do o Selfserving bias: tendency to take credit for our successes and to deny responsibility for our failures o Beautifulisgood stereotypes: positive expectations for physically attractive people o Selffulfilling prophecy: expectations cause individuals to act in ways that serve to make the expectations come true Attitudes o Link between attitudes and behavior Attitudes affect our behavior Behavior affect ours attitude o Cognitive dissonance: the conflict that occurs when a person holds contradictory attitudes or beliefs Ex: “I smoke, but smoking leads to cancer” We come to like what we suffer for most Group membership Parenting College tuition Persuasion: how easily we change our attitudes depends on: o The message source Attractive? Expertise? Trustworthy? o Characteristics of the message Emotions (especially fear) Twosided messages o Characteristics of the target Younger people are more likely to be persuaded People whose beliefs are weaker are more likely to be persuaded o Elaboration likelihood model: Central Route Processing: thoughtful consideration of the issues and arguments Peripheral Route Processing: consideration of the source and related general information o Footinthedoor: agreement with a small request increases the likelihood of compliance with a larger request o Doorintheface: denying a large request increases the likelihood of compliance with a smaller request Conformity and Obedience o Conformity: a change in behavior or attitudes brought about by a desire to follow the beliefs or standards of other people o Why do we conform: Informational Social Influence: we conform because we want to be right, and we assume the groups knows better than we do alone o Normative Social Influence: we conform because we want people to like us, and we want to “fit in” o Obedience: a change in behavior in response to the commands of others o The Milgram Experiment One “learner”, one “teacher” Shock generator used to apply punishment (15 to 450 volts) Heart problem halfway into experiment How many would go all the way? o Stanford Prison Experiment Stanford University, 1970s Philip Zimbardo Group Influence o Deindividuation: being part of a group reduces personal identity and a sense of personal responsibility o Social Contagion: imitative behavior involving the spread of behavior, emotions, and ideas. o Social Facilitation: an individual’s performance improves because of the presence of others We perform better if we are being watched o Social loafing: each person’s tendency to exert less effort in a group because of reduced accountability for individual effort o Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders Defining Abnormality o Abnormal behavior: deviant, maladaptive, or personally distressful over a relatively long period of time Deviant: usual and unacceptable in a culture Maladaptive: interferes with one’s ability to function effectively in the world Personal distress: the person finds their behavior troubling o Biological influences: genetic makeup of the individual; brain structure and neurotransmitters o Psychological influences: responses to stress; patterns of negative thinking o Socialcultural influences: cultural expectations; definitions of normality and disorder; stigma and prejudice; homelessness; abuse o DiathesisStress: genetic disposition stress/trauma disorder Classifying Abnormal Behavior o Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM5) o APA system to diagnose and classify abnormal behavior Problems with DSMIV o Descriptive only; does not discuss causes o Danger in applying labels Affects staff and clinicians Affects the individual o Reliance on the biological perspective o Inflexible, allornone categories “meet 5 of the 8 criteria” o Diagnoses affect insurance benefits, carry social stigma, etc. Other important factors: you are (probably) just fine Anxiety and Anxiety Related Disorders o Anxiety Disorder: the occurrence of anxiety that is uncontrollable, disproportionate to the actual danger, and disruptive to everyday life o Generalized anxiety disorder: longterm persistent anxiety and worry Persistent anxiety for at least 6 months Unable to identify a specific reason for the anxiety o Panic disorder: panic attacks that last from a few seconds to several hours No identifiable stimuli Feeling of impending doom, heart palpitations, shortness of breath, sweating, dizziness o Phobic disorder: intense, irrational fears of specific objects or situations Severity depends on the specific stimuli that triggers anxiety ObsessiveCompulsive Disorder o Obsessions: persistent, unwanted thoughts or ideas o Compulsions: irresistible urges to repeatedly carry out some act that seems strange and unreasonable Completing compulsions lead to a shortterm reduction o OCDRelated Disorders: Hoarding: compulsive collecting, poor organization skills, and difficulty discarding things Excoriation: the compulsion of picking at one’s skin, sometime to the point of injury Trichotillomania: compulsively pulling at the hair from the scalp, eyebrows, and other areas Body Dysmorphic Disorder: a distressing preoccupation with imagined or slight flaws in one’s physical appearance PTSD o Posttraumatic stress disorder: anxiety disorder that develops through exposure to a traumatic event that has overwhelmed the person’s abilities to cope Flashbacks (reliving the event) Avoiding emotions and emotional experiences Exaggerated startle response Sleep difficulties, nightmares Memory and concentration difficulties Impulsive outbursts, aggressiveness OCD & Anxiety Causes o Causes: Deficiencies in neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine) Genetics Tendency to experience negative thoughts Overactive autonomic nervous system Learned events from childhood (phobias) Mood Disorders: disturbances in emotional feelings strong enough to interfere with everyday life o Major depression: severe form of depression lasts at least 2 weeks interferes with concentration, decisionmaking, and sociability Major depressive disorder: 1 out of 6 people in the US will succumb to clinical depression during their lifetime; women twice as likely to develop MDD, average age of onset is MDD o Bipolar Disorder: extreme mood swings with one or more episodes of mania o Mania: an intense state of intense, wild elation Little sleep, tremendous energy, impulsive behavior Swings can last a few months to years o Causes: Genetics neurotransmitters (serotonin) oversensitivity to negative environmental feedback Oversensitivity to negative environmental feedback Learned helplessness: powerlessness and a perceived lack of control Rumination, negative thoughts and beliefs Dissociative Disorders: separation of critical parts of the personality that normally work together o Dissociative identity disorder: two or more distinct personalities within the same person Very rare Different allergies, eyeglass prescriptions, accents, etc. Severe childhood trauma and sexual abuse is common Sufferers are sometimes aware of the other personality, sometimes not Schizophrenia o Disturbances of thoughts and language o Typically diagnosed in early adulthood (1825) o Affects 1 out of 100 o Carries other health comorbidities: heart disease, diabetes, infections o Positive symptoms: hallucinations (sensory experience that is not real), delusions (distortion of reality), agitation, disorganized and referential thinking (things in the environment reference them, TV people have secret coded messages) o Negative symptoms: social withdrawal, flat affect/lack of emotional response, catatonia or unusual movement patterns o Causes: Genetics Environmental factors: diathesis stress model inborn predisposition + environmental stressors Treatment Approaches Biological Therapy o Drug Therapy: control of psychological disorder through the use of drugs Used mainly in tree diagnostic categories: anxiety disorders, mood disorders, schizophrenia o Antianxiety drugs (tranquilizers): drugs that lower levels of anxiety by reducing excitability and increasing feelings of calmness Benxodiazephines (Xanax, valium) Addictive, often abused, should not be used with alcohol o Antidepressants: medications that regulate mood Tricyclics, MAOIs, SSRIs. All work on serotonin and norepinephrine. Also useful for a number of anxiety disorders Lithium is used for bipolar disorder (manic phases) o Research supports the key influence of the neurochemical serotonin in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) o Hence, the previous slide shows how SSRIs work the synaptic gap between neuron to combat depressive symptoms o Antipsychotics: drugs that diminish agitated behavior, reduce tension, decrease hallucinations, improve social behavior, and produce better sleep patterns in individuals who have a severe psychotic psychological disorders Most block dopamine receptors Covers up symptoms; not a cure Side effects and client adherence Psychotherapy o Psychodynamic therapy: stresses the importance of the unconscious mind, extensive interpretation by the therapist, and the role of early childhood experiences in the development of an individual’s problems o Transference: the transfer to a psychoanalyst feelings of love or anger that had been originally directed to a patient’s parents or other authority figures o Humanistic approach: people are encouraged to understand themselves and grow personally o Reflective speech: a technique in which the therapist mirrors the client’s own feelings back to the client “you sound very angry” o Three required elements: Unconditional positive regard Empathy Genuineness o Behavioral treatment approaches: build on the basic principles of learning Abnormal behavior is learned and can be unlearned Uses classical and operant conditioning techniques o Aversive conditioning: pairing an unwanted stimuli with a certain behavior o Systematic desensitization: gradual exposure to an anxietyproducing stimulus is paired with relaxation to extinguish the anxiety response o Applied behavior analysis: establishing connections between behaviors and rewards o Cognitive approach: emphasizes that cognitions, or thoughts, are the main source of psychological problems o Cognitive restructuring: changing a pattern of thought that is presumed to be causing maladaptive behavior or emotion o Rationalemotive behavior therapy: attempts to restructure a person’s belief system into a more realistic, rational, and logical set of views Three basic demands people create: I must perform well and win the approval of others Other people must treat me kindly and fairly o Cognitivebehavior therapy: a combination of cognitive therapy and behavior therapy Goal is to reduce stressdefeating thoughts and modify behavior