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Dendrology Week 14 Pacific Northwest

by: Jacob Erle

Dendrology Week 14 Pacific Northwest 336

Marketplace > Syracuse University > Foreign Language > 336 > Dendrology Week 14 Pacific Northwest
Jacob Erle
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Here is the final week's worth of notes, where we talked about trees seen in the Pacific Northwest Region
Dr. Donald J. Leopold
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacob Erle on Thursday December 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 336 at Syracuse University taught by Dr. Donald J. Leopold in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Dendrology in Foreign Language at Syracuse University.


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Date Created: 12/10/15
Dendrology Notes Week 14 12/7/17 Pacific Northwest Forests -Much more variable than Rockies -region extends up into Canada and Alaska -Coastal and Olympics National Forest = temperate rainforest - hugs Pacific coastline, and gets up to 15’ of rainfall a year -major biodiversity hotspot -Cascade Mountain forest - composed mainly of Douglas-fir (at least 20% of total composition) -Past the Cascade Mountains is Interior Basin – only 6” of rainfall annually -much more xeric, see ponderosa pine -lots of western redcedar -coated with beautiful alpine meadows -Mt. St Helens region coated with noble fir 13miles away; ground floor is covered with ~1.5’ of volcanic ash -5’ diameterDouglas-fir trees have been blown over like toothpicks -Inland Empire - seen in Idaho and Montana, home lots of important forest types -good for growing crops, except there’s no water there; most water absorbed from distant rivers taken and used for agriculture **seen on workbook pA48, solid lines indicate dominate species Pinus contorta variety contorta – shore pine (1 of 4 different varieties) -lots of steep slopes combines with rainfall = lots of stream flow -some remaining old growth, but heavy amounts of clearcut areas -lots of areas clearcut are not left to natural regeneration (plant mostly red alder and lots of Douglas-fir) -Spotted owl needs ~1000acres of old-growth Douglasfir for territory- is federally listed -most of the trees out West tend to be larger than their Eastern cousins *see Olympic National Forest (scenes done for Twilight and The Hunger Games) -bryophytes harvested in this region for horticultural purposes, and also vast amounts of mushroom collections; interesting region for non-timber products Alnus rubra red alder Betulaceae -only hardwood angiosperm identified in this region; single most important hardwood species in Pacific Norwthwest -coastal forest species -doesn’t have to deal with fire as much; contends more with ice and flooding -very white underneath dark green leaf -nitrogen fixer -strobilus present but bracts remain, look like tiny cones (usually wind dispersed) -lots of bryophyte mats cover trees so you don’t often see the bark -classic pioneer, short-lived (~70-80 years old), basal sprouter, shade intolerant -found in very dense stands because of basal sprouting -found right along stream sides (riparian); very steep slopes are dominated more by conifers -very aggressive on clearcut sites, widely dispersed because of wind blowing seeds everywhere Pinus monticola (“of the mountains”) western white pine Pinaceae -moderately shade tolerant, but larger than P. strobus -very eco similar to eastern white pine and sugar pine, cones are longer -1 whorl of growth per year, very fast-growing -white pine blister rust severe threat -very valuable timber species -bark is more red-brown -western white pine is aggressive colonizer of bare mineral soils after fire hits -commonly seen out west; found in Cascades, dominant in Inland Empire Piecea sitchensis Sitka spruce Pinaceae -named after Sitka islands, town of Sitka -largest spruce in the world, over 200’ tall and 60’ in circumference 5X larger than P. abies -moderately shade tolerant -sharper needles than P. pungens -Blue-green waxy foliage -shallow root systems wind susceptible (massive canopies), and needs decent amount of water (12-15’ of precipitation a year); sustained just above freezing temperatures, too warm will kill it -aggressive colonizer of disturbed lands, gap species (often seen with Douglas-fir, western hemlock) -droopy branch characteristic of Norway spruce also seen in Sitka spruce -germinates on logs (organic materials) and mineral soils -cones scales similar to P. pungens, but much stiffer and more dark-brown -highest strength: weight ratio of any tree identified -used in the making of first fighter planes in WWI -One of the tallest trees in the world, 216’ tall -often eventually replaced by western redcedar, which is more shade tolerant Tsuga heterophylla western hemlock Pinaceae -climax species of Pacific Northwest -dominates in rainforest, not Interior Basin, and is scattered in Inland Empire -not fast-growing, long-lived (~1000years), shade tolerant -very eco similar to eastern hemlock -primary source of cellulose for Rayon, higher end clothes -slightly bigger cones, more open and flexible than eastern hemlock -no pest problems, wooly adelgid not an issue (No known predators of hemlock wooly adelgid out West?) 12/9/15 Abies grandis grand fir Pinaceae -One of the largest firs, 10X the size of A. balsamea -range is more northwest, Oregon, Southern California, Washington and western Montana -really abundant in more dry areas, drought tolerant -long lived, very shade tolerant, climax of Inland Empire; found in very dense stands -found in Eastern side of Cascade, western side has more precipitation  other trees will out-compete it -not fire tolerant (most firs aren’t) -cones are thumb-sized -not very important for timber, but do have ecological importance -does grow well in the East -very aromatic, good Xmas tree Thuja plicata western redcedar Cupressaceae -scattered in Inland Empire -dominates in Pacific Northwest temperate rainforests, climax species -shade tolerant, long lived (~1500-2000yrs), fairly fast-growing especially in its native range -21’ in diameter -very valuable, softer wood, rot resistant; used for making shingles out West -very flammable -ecologically similar to T. occidentalis -“butterflies” made by wax on underside -prickle is more prominent on cone than that of T. occidentalis -Reddish-brown wood, T. occidentalis more whitish -buttressed at base -mixed in with western hemlock, Sitka spruce -used in wreath making, along with noble fir -easy to carve, made for totem poles, telephone poles, ocean-going canoes Along with western hemlock, Sitka spruce, and douglas-fir - most valuable for wood in the area Pinus ponderosa ponderosa pine Pinaceae -5 distinct geographical races based on location (ecotype) -most drought tolerant pine in PA northwest -becomes more dominant as conditions get dryer “Big Red” – 162’ tall *Digger pine is most tolerant of them all, found in Interior basin Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii coast Douglas-fir Pinaceae -makes up 20% of all timber used in US; found in really dense stands -moderately shade tolerant, fast growing, long-lived (~1000years) -dominant in Cascades, scattered tree in Rainforest where it reaches its zenith (17’ in diameter, 325’ tall being the second tallest tree in the world) -also widely planted along coastal Europe (same with Sitka spruce) -readily regenerates in disturbed areas; harvested within 60yrs after germination See Hoh Rainforest of Olympics – large range of old-growth forests -thick bark is covered with lichens -planted in plantations, used for telephone poles -valuable for spotted owl – 1 pair needs 1000 acres of old-growth Douglas-fir to be successful – has been driving management decision-making


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