New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

End of Unit 3 Notes

by: Danielle Francy

End of Unit 3 Notes Bio 190

Marketplace > Towson University > Biology > Bio 190 > End of Unit 3 Notes
Danielle Francy

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

This week's notes before the exam
Intro Biology for Health Professions
Joseph Velenovsky
Class Notes
Bio 190
25 ?




Popular in Intro Biology for Health Professions

Popular in Biology

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danielle Francy on Saturday April 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 190 at Towson University taught by Joseph Velenovsky in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Intro Biology for Health Professions in Biology at Towson University.


Reviews for End of Unit 3 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/02/16
Unit 3 Notes    Stage 1:  ● Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm  ● Breaks glucose into two molecules of a three Carbon compound  Stage 2:  ● Mitochondria  ● Pyruvate oxidized to a two Carbon compound  ● Small amount of ATP made during glycolysis and citric acid cycle  ● Main function is to supply third stage with electrons  Stage 3:  ● ETC and chemiosmosis  ● ETC in inner mitochondrion membrane  ● ***Most of the ATP from cellular respiration is from this stage  ● It is called oxidative phosphorylation because of ADP and phosphorylation  ● Coupling of ETC to ATP synthesis  ● Pumping of hydrogen ions across inner mitochondrial membrane into inner membrane  space  ● Concentration gradient of hydrogen ions  ● Potential energy of concentration gradient used to make ATP  ● ***Peter Mitchell=nobel prize    Fermentation:  ● Does not require oxygen  ● Glycolysis generates ATP  ● Same exact glycolysis in the first stage of cellular respiration  ● Net gain of 2 ATP  ● Oxidizing glucose to two molecules of pyruvate  ● Reduces NAD+ to NADH  ● Cellular respiration per glucose­ 32 ATP  ● Why do this?  ● If oxygen is scarce, (exercise) keeps muscles contracting  ● Many microorganisms are able to have enough energy with just glycolysis  ● Hypoxic environment  ● In order to oxidize glucose during glycolysis, NAD+ must be present as an electron  acceptor.  ● No issue during aerobic conditions  ● Regeneration during ETC  ● Fermentation represents an anaerobic path to recycling NADH back to NAD+  ● Recycle to perform more glycolysis and generate ATP        Alcoholic Fermentation:  ● Yeast normally use aerobic respiration but can survive in anaerobic environments  ● Recycling of NADH  ● Carbon dioxide and bubbles    Lactic Acid Fermentation:  ● NADH oxidized  ● Pyruvate reduced  ● Lactate (ionized form of lactic acid)  ● Muscle cells in humans    Energy Investment:  Steps 1­3:  ● A fuel molecule is energized, using ATP  Step 4:  ● A six carbon intermediate splits into two 3 carbon intermediates  Energy Payoff:  Step 5:  ● A redox reaction generates NADH  Steps 6­9:  ● ATP and pyruvate are produced        ● 6% of the energy a cell can harvest from a glucose molecule  ● Two NADH molecules are 16% but their energy cannot be accessed unless oxygen is  present  ● Pyruvate is transported from cytoplasm because glycolysis takes place there  ● Enters mitochondrion (oxidative phosphorylation and citric acid cycle)  ● ***Pyruvate itself doesn’t enter citric acid cycle  ● Must be modified  ● 1 molecule of glucose­2 molecules of pyruvate­oxidized­2 molecules acetyl Coenzyme A  ● Carboxyl group removed  ● 1st step where carbon dioxide is released  ● ***“Arrow” = large multienzyme complex  ● 3 reactions  ● B vitamin              Krebs Cycle:  ● Hans Krebs  ● Each turn of the cycle­ 1 ATP through substrate­level phosphorylation  ● 3 NADH  ● 1 FADH2  ● 2 molecules of acetyl Coenzyme A for each glucose  ● Overall yield= enzymes located in mitochondrial matrix or embedded in the inner  membrane  Right side of the Cycle:  ● Redox reactions  ● Strip hydrogen atoms off of intermediates  ● Intermediates lose carbon dioxide  ● Iodized citric acid  Left side of the Cycle:  ● Enzymes rearrange chemical bonds  ● One turn is considered complete wh​xaloacetate​as been regenerated  Equals:  ● From one glucose molecule:  ● 4 ATP SLP  ● 10 NADH  ● 2 FADH2  ● To access energy in NADH and FADH2, the ETC must happen  ● Oxidation of these molecules drives phosphorylation of ADP    Oxidative Phosphorylation:  ● Arrangement in membrane  ● Creates hydrogen ion concentration gradient  ● Energy of gradient drives ATP synthesis  ● Inner membrane  ● Cristae (folds) increase surface area  ● Space for thousands of the ETC  ● Multiple ATP synthases  ● I,II,III,IV= where carrier molecules live  ● Bind and release electrons in redox reactions transport between complexes  ● I,III,IV use energy from electron transfers to transport hydrogen ions against their  concentration gradient  ● From matrix to inner membrane space  ● Built into inner membrane mitochondrial membrane  ● Hydrogen ions driven through a channel in ATP synthase  ● Spinning a component of ATP synthase  ● Activates catalytic sites that attach phosphate groups to ADP forming ATP  ● ATP synthases act like miniature turbines    Biosynthesis:  ● Excess of certain amino acid  ● Turned off by feedback inhibition  ● Also controls cellular respiration  ● Based on ATP quantity  ● Inhibits early enzyme in glycolysis  ● Enzyme activated by ATP           


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.