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HSTA 101H 7-11 December Notes

by: Rachel Notetaker

HSTA 101H 7-11 December Notes HSTA 101H - 00

Marketplace > University of Montana > History > HSTA 101H - 00 > HSTA 101H 7 11 December Notes
Rachel Notetaker
University of Memphis
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

These are the last notes for the semester, going from The transformation of the civil war to the Casualties and consequences of war and ending with the US after 1865.
American History I
Kyle G. Volk (P)
Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Notetaker on Friday December 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HSTA 101H - 00 at University of Montana taught by Kyle G. Volk (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see American History I in History at University of Montana.


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Date Created: 12/11/15
The  Transformation  of  the  Civil  War   7  December  2015   1. Marcus  Spiegel   a. Immigrant  from  Germany,  came  to  America  for  a  better  life   b. Settled  in  Ohio,  married  a  farmer’s  daughter   c. Volunteered  for  war  “to  defend  the  flag  and  to  protect  and  preserve   the  Union”   d. Was  a  democrat,  wasn’t  an  abolitionist  before  the  war   i. By  1864  he  saw  the  horrors  of  slavery  and  believed  there  could   be  no  union  with  slavery   Transformation  from  War  To  Preserve  Union  to  War  To  End  Slavery   2. Abolition  of  slavery  not  inevitable  in  1861   a. Lincoln  sworn  into  presidency  4  March  1861   i. “One  section  of  our  country  believes  slavery  is  right…while  the   other  believes  it  is  wrong…this  is  the  only  substantial  dispute.”   1. Identifies  slavery  at  the  root  of  the  controversy   b. First  Inaugural  Address   i. Conciliatory  but  stresses  his  constitutional  obligation   ii. Promises  not  to  touch  slavery  in  the  south   1. Will  consider  constitutional  amendment  protecting   slavery   iii. Promises  to  protect  federal  property  locate  in  the  seceding   states   1. Federally  owned  customs  houses,  post  offices,  military   bases,  etc.   2. Spark  that  led  to  the  war,  Confederate  troops  sieged  US   bases  such  as  Fort  Sumter   a. First  battle  was  battle  of  Bull  Run  in  July  1861   3. Conditions  and  experience  of  war   a. War  for  the  Union:  why  not  end  slavery  immediately?   i. Constitutional  concern   1. Slavery  legal   2. Slaveholders  property  rights  protected   ii. Preserving  the  Union   1. Lincoln  wanted  to  promote  reunion  as  soon  as  possible   2. Strong  moves  against  slavery  wouldn’t  help  persuade   seceded  states  to  rejoin  the  Union   a. Early  reunion  required  preservation  of  slavery   iii. The  quick  war:  civil  war  seen  as  a  spectator  sport  at  first   1. William  T  Sherman  “This  is  to  be  a  long  war,  very  long,   much  longer  than  any  politician  thinks”   iv. Border  state  concerns   1. Fear  of  losing  Kentucky  (KY),  Maryland  (MD),  Missouri   (MO)  to  the  Confederacy   a. All  slaveholding  states  that  hadn’t  seceded   2. These  states  were  militarily  and  economically  vital  to   the  Union  cause   4. Role  (agency)  of  slaves  in  bringing  transformation   a. Slaves  fleeing  to  union  lines   i. Flight  of  slaves  flew  in  the  face  of  everything  slaveholders   claimed  (blacks  were  loyal,  happy,  delighted  to  be  slaves)   ii. Conscious  decision  to  escape  slavery  (agency)  as  not  all  slaves   fled   b. Slaves  force  federal/military  policy  making   i. At  first,  military  policies  on  an  ad  hoc  basis   1. General  McClellan  returned  slaves  to  their  owners  in   order  to  preserve  the  Union   a. Soldiers  didn’t  want  to  take  slaves  away,  but  to   regain  the  seceded  states   2. General  Benjamin  Butler:  slaves  were  “contraband”     a. Refused  to  return  salves  in  order  to  weaken  the   Confederacy   b. Put  escaped  slaves  to  work  (for  wages)  for  the   Union  army   ii. Union  policy  changing  to  move  against  slavery   1. Confiscation  Acts,  Act  Prohibiting  the  Return  of  Slaves   (1862)   a. Accepted  contraband  ideal   b. Rejected  fugitive  slave  law   c. Prevented  military  from  returning  slaves   c. Escaping  slaves  pushed  Lincoln  to  think  differently  about  slavery/war   i. “My  paramount  object  in  this  struggle  is  to  save  the  Union,  and   is  not  either  to  save  or  to  destroy  slavery…what  I  forebear,  I   forebear  because  I  do  not  believe  it  would  help  save  the  Union”   ii. Summer  1862:  Privately  changing  his  views,  believes   emancipation  to  be  a  military  necessity   1. Changes  in  Northern  opinions  about  emancipation   2. Freed  slaves  could  help  the  Union  army   3. Other  justifications   5. Failure  of  the  Confederacy  to  protect  slavery   a. The  Primary  Emancipation  Proclamation:  22  September  1862   i. If  the  south  doesn’t  lay  down  arms,  Lincoln  would  decree   abolition   ii. South  does  not  lay  down  arms  by  the  end  of  the  year   b. Emancipation  Proclamation  signed  1  January  1863   i. Doesn’t  apply  to  border  states  or  Confederate  territory   occupied  by  Union  forces   ii. 3  million  men,  women,  children  “henceforth  shall  be  free”   1. Needed  help  of  Union  army  to  actually  leave  plantations   iii. Point  of  no  return:  From  War  to  preserve  Union  to  War  to   abolish  slavery   1. Union  army  an  explicit  agent  of  emancipation   c. Fleeing  slaves  linked  to  Union  victories   i. Vicksburg,  MS  Campaign   1. Led  by  General  Ulysses  S  Grant   2. 18  May  1863-­‐  4  July  1863   3. Major  significance:   a. Divided  the  Confederacy  in  half  by  taking  control   of  the  Mississippi  River   b. Military  turning  point  in  the  war:  anaconda   strategy   ii. Brierfield  plantation:  20  miles  south  of  Vicksburg   1. Home  of  Confederate  President  Jefferson  Davis   2. 1000  acres,  over  200  slaves  freed   a. Even  Davis’s  slaves  were  eager  to  leave  the   plantation   6. The  views  of  Billy  Yank  (common  Union  soldiers)   a. At  first  didn’t  want  to  lay  down  their  lives  for  slaves   i. Joined  the  war  for  the  sake  of  the  Union,  not  for  abolition   b. Lincoln  saw  there  were  black  men  willing  to  fight,  despite  the  white   racism   i. Black  soldiers  in  the  Civil  War  being  after  the  Emancipation   Proclamation   1. Over  178,000  black  men  fought   a. 80%  former  slaves   2. 37,000  died  in  the  war   ii. Bureau  of  Colored  Soldiers  (1863)  fought  in  major  battles   1. Wagner,  Vicksburg,  Milikens  Bend,  etc.   7. The  Gettysburg  Address:  19  November  1863   a. “New  birth  of  freedom”  democracy  redefined  without  freedom   b. Rejection  of  the  Confederacy’s  vision  of  democracy  built  on  slavery   and  racial  inequality   c. The  civil  war  named  “The  Second  American  Revolution”   8. The  election  of  1864   a. Lincoln  v  McClellan   i. McClellan  had  a  platform  of  keeping  slavery  for  the  sake  of   preserving  the  Union  and  ending  the  war  immediately   1. Virtual  referendum  on  Lincoln’s  policies  of   emancipation   ii. Lincoln  campaigned  the  goal  of  the  13  amendment   1. Need  for  something  iron  clad  to  end  slavery  once  and   forever   2. Won  in  a  landslide   a. 78%  soldiers’  vote   b. 212/233  electoral  vote   c. 55%  popular  vote     Casualties  of  War   9  December  2015   1. 3  million  Americans  fought  in  the  civil  war   a. 2.1  million  northerners   i. 178,000  black  men   b. 880,000  southerners   i. 3  out  of  4  southern  military-­‐age  men  fought  in  the  war   c. The  continental  army  never  numbered  more  than  30,000  at  one  time   2. Modern  Warfare   a. Industrialization   i. Railroads  and  steamboats  used  for  transportation   1. Many  battles  fought  over  control  of  rivers  and  rail  lines   ii. Telegraph  and  morse  code  used  for  communication   1. Union  sent  3,300  messages  a  day  at  its  peak   iii. Mass  produced  equipment:  rifles,  ammunition,  cannons   iv. New  technologies:  iron  plated  war  ships,  etc.   b. First  major  conflict  to  be  fought  largely  with  guns   i. Before,  standard  weapon  was  the  muzzle  loading  single  shot   musket   ii. Guns  no  longer  have  smooth  barrel,  but  twisted  to  help  bullet   move  through  the  air  more  accurately   c. Combat  revolutionized:  trench  warfare   3. Casualties  of  war   a. Overall,  620,000  dead  soldiers   i. 360,000  union   ii. 260,000  confederate   b. Battle  of  Antietam:  single  deadliest  day  in  American/military  history   i. 17  September  1862   ii. Antietam,  Maryland:  one  of  the  first  major  battles  on  northern   soil   iii. 23,000  casualties   c. 500,000  soldiers  were  wounded  throughout  the  war   i. Injuries  often  lasted  a  lifetime   ii. Amputation  made  up  75%  medical  procedures  during  the  war   d. Twice  as  many  soldiers  died  from  disease  than  from  battle  wounds   i. No  knowledge  of  sterilization   ii. Gangreen  common   4. Lincoln’s  Assassination   a. John  Wilkes  Booth’s  Conspiracy   i. Stage  actor  born  in  1831,  unabashed  racist   1. Didn’t  support    emancipation  or  racial  equality,  hated   Lincoln   ii. Had  plan  to  kidnap  Lincoln  in  Summer  1864   1. Had  8-­‐10  coconspirators   2. Plan  never  went  through   iii. 9  April  1865  General  Lee  surrenders  to  Grant,  ending  military   action   1. 2  days  after  (11  April)  Lincoln  gives  speech     a. Suggested  certain  voting  rights  for  blacks   b. “Now  by  God  I’ll  run  him  through”  –Booth   2. 3  days  after  the  speech  (14  April)  Lincoln  shot  at  Ford’s   Theatre   a. Other  conspirators  were  supposed  to  kill   Andrew  Johnson  (vice  president)  and  William  H   Seward  (secretary  of  state)   b. The  other  assassinations  were  unsuccessful   iv. Ultimate  goal:  to  revive  the  confederate  cause   b. Mourning:  Funeral  for  the  nation   i. Lincoln’s  was  the  ultimate  death  after  the  civil  war   ii. Became  an  emblem  of  all  civil  war  losses   iii. 25,000  people  show  up  to  see  his  body  at  the  White  House   iv. His  body  made  a  tour  around  the  North  by  train  before  arriving   in  Springfield,  IL  to  be  buried   c. Broader  Significance   i. Left  open  questions:  no  plan  for  reconstruction  at  the  time  of   his  death   1. How  to  reunite  the  union?   2. How  will  seceded  states  rejoin  the  union?   3. How  will  the  south  be  rebuilt  economically?   4. What  is  the  future  of  the  4  million  former  slaves?   5. What  was  the  meaning  of  freedom?   a. Civil,  political,  economic  rights   6. How  long  should  union  troops  stay  in  the  south?   7. Was  there  a  future  for  interracial  democracy  in  the   south?   8. Was  there  a  need  for  military  presence?   ii. Left  Vice  President  Andrew  Johnson  in  charge   1. Complete  opposite  of  Lincoln   2. From  Tennessee,  slave  owner,  unskilled  politician,   unabashed  racist     The  US  after  1865-­‐1870   11  December  2015   1. The  Civil  War  brought  a  new  birth  of   a. Freedom   i. 4  million  people  freed  from  slavery   b. Power   i. Republicans:  anti-­‐slavery,  industrial  development,  westward   expansion   c. Conflict   i. The  republican  vision  provoked  often  bloody  conflicts  with   southern  whites,  Native  Americans,  and  wage  laborers   2. Freedmen  defined  by  their  actions   a. Large  traveling,  going  to  a  new  city  meant  new  opportunities   b. Reunited  or  created  new  families   c. Invested  in  education   i. $1  million  spent  during  this  time  on  education   d. Established  churches   e. Entered  formal  politics-­‐  local,  state,  federal  representation   3. Southern  reactions  to  emancipation   a. Black  codes   i. Legal  restrictions  on  mobility,  labor  autonomy   ii. Attempt  to  reinstitute  a  political  economy  similar  to  slavery   iii. Instituted  in  governments  across  former  confederacy   b. Terrorism   i. Emergence  of  the  KKK,  Knights  of  White  Camelia,  etc.   1. White  supremacist  movements   ii. 1865,  over  2,000  blacks  murdered  in  Louisiana   iii. 1866,  3  day  massacre  in  Memphis,  TN   1. 46  murdered,  schools  and  other  black  buildings  burned   4. Radical  republicans  in  congress   a. Advocate  expansion  of  federal  authority  to  address  crises  in  the  form   b. 1866:  civil  rights  act  passed   i. guarantees  citizenship  to  every  person  born  in  the  US   c. Fear  the  future  lawmakers  or  courts  will  overturn  the  Civil  Rights  Act,   so  they  design  the  14th  amendment   i. people  born  in  the  US  are  guaranteed  citizens   ii. No  state  can  abridge  privileges  or  deprive  citizens  of  life,   liberty,  or  property  without  due  process  of  law   iii. Guaranteed  equal  protection  of  law   iv. explicitly  limited  power  of  states,  enforced  guarantee  in  federal   government   d. 15th  amendment  in  1870  gave  voting  rights  to  black  men   5. Republican  policies  in  the  west   a. complete  transcontinental  railroad   b. connect  the  West  to  Eastern  markets   c. Settle  the  West  with  White  landowners   d. extract  resources  that  would  add  to  national  wealth/fuel  industrial   development   e. Dispossess  Native  American  population,  construct  reservation  system   i. A  quarter  of  a  million  in  the  West  at  this  time   ii. Erase  traditional  Native  cultures   6. The  changing  North   a. After  the  war,  corporations  emerged  as  powerful  forces  in  American   life   b. Pennsylvania  Railroad  owned  more  track  than  all  nations  in  the   world,  excluding  Britain  and  France   i. with  help  of  republican  policies   c. By  1880,  US  was  among  top  4  most  industrial  nations  in  the  world   i. majority  of  workers  in  the  US  were  wage  workers   d. By  1890,  2/3  American  workers  were  wage  earners   e. industrial  growth  will  "make  sharper  the  contrast  between  the  House   of  Have  and  the  House  of  Want"  -­‐Henry  George   i. hardening  of  class  division   f. Between  1865-­‐1900,  average  of  1,500    labor  unrest  episodes/protests   per  year   7. The  Great  Railroad  Strike  of  1877   a. Four  largest  railroads  simultaneously  cut  wages   b. West  Virginia  Railroad  workers  walked  off  the  job,  followed  by  other   workers  in  the  East  and  North   i. joined  by  dockworkers  and  ironworkers   c. Shut  down  US  transportation  system  (moving  people,  goods,  capital)   d. Railroad  officials  relied  on  military  support  from  state  and  federal   governments   i. Used  force  to  end  strike   e. Significance:   i. 1st  national  labor  uprising  of  the  era,  put  the  labor  question  at   the  forefront  of  politics   ii. Solidified  class  identities   iii. Local,  state,  federal  governments  bolster  military  and  police   power   1. birth  of  the  National  Guard   iv. Labor  questions  replaces  southern  question   1. "dwarfed  all  other  questions  into  nothing"  -­‐JM  Dalzell  


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