Human Bio class notes week of 03/28
Human Bio class notes week of 03/28 BSC 2023
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eleonora Sacks on Saturday April 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 2023 at Florida International University taught by Paul Sharp in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Human Biology in Biology at Florida International University.
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Date Created: 04/02/16
Class notes week of 03/28 4/2/16 2:19 PM Respiratory System: • Ensures oxygen enters body while carbon dioxide leaves body • • Composed of: • Upper respiratory tract: conditions air as it enters the body. o Nasal cavity: air is humidified, heated. Has flaps of tissue. Has large hairs that filter air and mucus membranes that produce mucus. Capillaries of sub-mucosa warm and moisten air. Tear (lacrimal) glands drain into the nasal cavity (when we cry we get runny noses because the tears that don't drip out of our eyes go to our nose, this helps clean the nasal cavity. o Pharynx: place where pathways for air and food cross. Connects nasal and oral cavities to the larynx, § Tonsils: primary defense during breathing § Epiglottis: covers the entrance to the larynx. Prevents food from going to the larynx. Like the doors to the larynx (they open and close) § Uvula: tab of tissue at the back of throat it contracts when touches by food and prevents food from going into the nasal cavity. o Glottis: entrance to the larynx (covered by the epiglottis). Like the doorway to the larynx. o Larynx: voice box. Cartilaginous organ between pharynx and trachea. § Vocal cords: fold of tissue that vibrates to create vocal sounds] § Glottis: opens air flow in the larynx o • Lower respiratory tract: allows oxygen to enter the blood and waste gases to leave blood. o Trachea: windpipe, passage of air to bronchi. In front of the esophagus so that when we eat something big there's room for the trachea to move and not collapse. Consists of connective tissue, smooth muscle and cartilaginous rings. Has mucosal membrane that produces mucus (from goblet cells) and is lines with cilia that push the mucus upward. o Bronchus/Bronchi (plural): passage of air to lungs o Bronchioles: passage of air to alveoli o Lungs: contain alveoli (air sacs lined with surfactant which reduces water tension) that carry out the gas exchange. The right lung has 3 lobes and the left one has 2 because of the cardiac notch. o Diaphragm: skeletal muscle, functions in ventilation. What separates the abdominal cavity from the thoracic cavity. When we inhale it pushes down because the lungs expand and when we exhale it pushes up because the lungs compress. (test question) • The groups of alveoli are called lobules. • The pulmonary artery takes deoxygenated blood to the capillaries of the alveoli and then the pulmonary vein takes oxygenated blood from the capillaries of the alveoli to the heart. • Air (oxygen) gets into the capillaries that go to the alveoli by diffusion. It goes from a high concentration in the capillaries to a lower concentration inside the alveoli. • External respiration: pulmonary gas exchange. CO2 from the capillaries is exchanged for O2 by the alveoli. • Internal respiration: systemic gas exchange by systemic tissue cells. Oxygen goes to tissue cells in organs and is exchanged for CO2 which goes into the capillaries • 4/2/16 2:19 PM • Our cells produce CO2 when they do cellular respiration and when they separate glucose molecules. This is the CO2 that will be exchanged for the O2. It's also exchanged through diffusion • The right side of the heart pumps deoxygenated blood. • • If we didn't have a diaphragm we could not breathe • Valsalva maneuver: forceful attempt to exhale against a closed airway, like pinching the nose shut and closing the mouth while pressing out air as if blowing a balloon. This is done to equalize air pressure. • Spirometer: measures the volume of air that is inspired and expired by the lungs. • Total capacity of the lungs is 5800 ml. • Tidal volume: normal, shallow breaths. They amount 5000 ml approx. • There's always some air left in the lungs because if we get rid of all of the air, then the lungs collapse. This air is called residual volume. When someone "knocks the wind out of you", you can't breathe, you lost some of the residual volume. Urinary System: • Organ system consisting of the kidneys and urinary bladder. • Excretion: rids the body of nitrogenous waste and metabolic waste • Helps regulate the water-salt balance of the blood. It filters the blood • Urea: primary nitrogenous waste of human derived from amino acid breakdown • • Kidneys: organ of the urinary system that produces and secretes urine • Fist sized organ • Produces hormone called calcitriol which increases blood calcium levels • Produces hormone called erythropoietin which stimulates red blood cell production • The outer part is called the renal cortex. Appears granular • Renal medulla: has the renal pyramids, the inside part of the kidney. • Renal pelvis: hollow chamber of the kidney that lies inside the renal medulla receives freshly prepared urine and takes it to the bladder. • • Renal artery: vessel that transports blood to be filtered from the aorta and delivers it to our body • Renal vein: vessel that takes filtered blood away from the kidney to the inferior vena cava. • Ureters: one of 2 tubes that take urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder. is 25cm long and 5mm in diameter • Urinary bladder: organ where urine is stored, approx. 800ml. • Has small folds of mucosa that prevent backward flow to ureters. When there is backward flow, the kidneys stop working • Internal sphincter (involuntary) and external sphincter (voluntary) • Approx. 300ml stretch receptors send the 1st nerve signal to the CNS. (when 300ml go into the bladder, it stretches and causes the internal sphincter to give way and the urine starts going down to the urethra. But there's an external sphincter that prevents it from going any further, it's the feeling we get when we need to pee but are holding it for a while. • When the bladder gets to 800 ml, you're gonna pee your pants. • It takes until a person is 3 or 4 years old to be able to control the external sphincter • Urethra: tubular structure that receives urine from the bladder • Carries urine to the outside of body, • In females is 4cm long and in males is 20cm long • Micturition: emptying of the bladder, urination, peeing. • Nephrons: (where the action takes place, the filtration) microscopic kidney unit that regulates blood composition by: 1. Glomerular filtration 2. Tubular reabsorption 3. Tubular secretion • 4/2/16 2:19 PM • The whole beige tube is the nephron, not just the ball shaped thing. • The part of the kidney where the filtration actually happens is the Nephron. • Nephron: • Glomerulus: capillary bed, ball shaped, surrounded by the glomerulus capsule where glomerular filtration takes place. There's more leakage than other capillaries. Water, salts, uric acid, glucose and other molecules leak out and enter the proximal convoluted tubular • Glomerulus capsule: double walled cup that surrounds the glomerulus • Peritubular capillary network: capillary network that surrounds a nephron and functions in reabsorption during urine formation. Purple tubes seen around the nephron in the picture above. • Proximal convoluted tubule: next to the glomerular capsule. The things that got filtered out in the glomerulus but that we need like glucose and amino acids are put back into the capillaries by Tubular Reabsorption. Inside it has villi which increase surface area. • Loop of the nephron: where we get water that got filtered out, found between the proximal and distal convoluted tubules. Water reabsorption takes place. • Distal convoluted tubule: distant to the glomerulus. The toxins and other things that didn't get filtered out of the blood are taken in by this tubule from the capillary next to them through active transport called Tubular Secretion (only for toxins or things that should be removed from blood flow). • Collecting duct: once anything reaches here it becomes part of the urine and will be excreted from the body in hours. • Afferent arteriole (brings blood to the glomerulus) is much larger than the efferent arteriole(takes blood from the glomerulus to the peritubular capillary network), this puts the capillary bed under a lot of pressure which pushes the liquids to go out faster. Endocrine System: • Organ system that includes internal organs that secrete hormones • Endocrine gland: a ductless gland that secretes hormone(s) into the bloodstream. EG: pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, etc • Exocrine gland: glands that have ducts through which their secretions are carried to a particular site. Eg: mucous, sweat, oil and salivary glands, the liver (secretes bile) • The pancreas is both exocrine (secretes digestive enzymes through pancreatic juice through a duct) and endocrine (secretes insulin and glucagon to the bloodstream, no duct)
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