HIST 150 Week 16 Notes
HIST 150 Week 16 Notes HIST 150
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica_Kline on Friday December 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 150 at Ball State University taught by Abel Alves in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see History in the Western World in History at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 12/11/15
HIST 150 Week 16; 12/08 & 12/10 Mexican Revolution I. President Diaz confiscated all communally owned land and sold it cheaply to his friends and US oil companies. a. This land was called ejido. 1. This land was often previously used to feed the poor and be the town commons. 2. The Native Indians had the same ideas about how some shared land was good. b. Once the land was sold, the government got rich, and peasants were many times landless and malnourished. II. Diaz often rigged elections so he would always win. a. Other officials did not like this. b. Pancho Villa (north) and Emiliano Zapata (middle Mexico) were the leaders of the rebellion. c. Alvaro Obregón led the Six Red Battalions 1. He steals the revolution, opposing all of the groups currently fighting. 2. He creates a new political party to represent all citizen classes and becomes president. 3. He used machine guns (modern technological warfare). World War I I. Franz Ferdinand is the Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary. a. Austria-Hungary (Austria) had a very mixed ethnicity, but one of the minorities was Serbs from Serbia, which was an independent nation that was part of the old Ottoman Empire. 1. Some of the Serbs wanted freedom from Austria, so they formed a type of terrorist organization called Union or Death (the Black Hand). 2. Ferdinand decided to give the Serbs a Diet of their own so that he could hear directly what they wanted. 3. Turns out they didn’t want that very much because Ferdinand was assassinated not long after. b. Serbia had an alliance with Russia. c. Austria had an alliance with Germany. 1. Russia and Germany tried to talk and make peace 2. The German Kaiser was talking to the Austrian leader while he was drunk and promised on his honor that he would do anything to protect Austria. d. Russia mobilizes to prepare for attack and Germany declares war on Russia to make the first strike. 1. Germany had the Schlieffen Plan, which said that if they went to war with Russia, they had to go to war with France. 2. This Plan required Germans to have to march through Belgium, who wanted to stay neutral. 3. Germany marched through anyway, and Britain declares war on Germany to protect Belgium 4. Belgium tries to stay neutral, but even today they find active bombs from this time period. 5. Japan enters the war on Britain’s side when Britain declares war on Germany. e. Each country’s political groups supported their country’s war effort except a splinter group led by Lenin. f. Trench warfare took a toll on armies on all sides. 1. Typhoid fever broke out often. g. All sides had the latest tech including machine guns, so they couldn’t charge without getting plowed down. 1. Mustard gas was another weapon used, but sometimes backfired or went into a nearby town. 2. U boats were used to sink army vessels, but sometimes, peaceful supply vessels were also sunk (Lusitania), which caused the US to join the war on Serbia’s side. 3. Airplanes could not fly very high and were used mainly to spy on the other side; nobles loved dogfights because it was just like a joust in the air. 4. Tanks were used very little. h. When the US enters the war, Russia leaves; the war ends soon after because of new men and more supplies. i. The war left 9.4 million dead, 21.2 million wounded; there are still many who are officially considered missing. III. Women’s suffrage was also something that was a big deal at the time. a. Women had been being raped at work, leading to illegitimate kids, which made getting a job hard; many of these women turned to prostitution to make money. b. Emmaline Pankhurst formed the Women’s Social Political Union to try to diminish the low glass ceiling. 1. At first it was just peaceful protest, but after getting arrested, they began to vandalize. Effects of WWI I. Lenin began the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) a. The Germans, who hoped he would cause havoc and destroy their war effort, let Lenin into Russia. b. The czar had been overthrown, leaving politics a bit up in the air. Lenin used “sound bites” (one-liners without real meaning) to gain support. 1. One of his most famous was “Peace, land, bread” 2. Another was “All power to the Soviets.” c. He gained the support of St. Petersburg and Moscow, the two cities that had factories and could produce supplies necessary. II. Europe as a whole was fairly crushed after the war. a. The German national debt rose from 4 to 99 billion marks, the French national debt rose from 34 to 144 million francs and their prices rose 250%, and in Britain rose 150%, all in 4 years. 1. This causes the US to become a huge creditor nation because the war had not been fought on American soil. b. Germany was expected to pay a huge sum of money, but they had no way to make money since their coal had been taken. 1. France would get 52%, Britain 22% and Belgium 8%. 2. If Germany can’t pay France and Britain, France and Britain can’t pay US. c. The Dawes Plan of 1924 US gave Germany a $200 million loan, and with this money, Germany was able to pay back $2 billion in 2 years. d. The Great Depression caused the US economy to drop, and since they were the creditor nation, Europe dropped with it, causing leaders to point fingers at scapegoats. 1. Benito Mussolini began the Fascist Reaction, which skyrocketed nationalism that said anything wrong that happened to Italy was because of non-Italians acting from inside and outside the country. 2. In Germany, Hitler began his rise to power by giving Germans scapegoats (Jews, gypsies, homosexuals, etc.) e. In the Reichstag, Nazis began gaining support like crazy. 1. Nazis have 12 seats, and communists have 54 2. 2 years later, Nazis have 107 and communists have 77 3. 2 more years later Nazis have 230, communists have 89, and socialists have 133, making Nazis the largest party. 4. The Nazis were made up of 28.1% blue-collar workers (46% of Germany’s total population), 25.6% white-collar workers (12% total pop.), 14% farmers (10.6% total pop.), and 1.7% teachers (.9% total pop.). f. Hitler makes his power play by convincing the president to appoint him to chancellor, and he was given absolute power through the Enabling Act (all of this was constitutional). 1. 5.9 million Jews, 270 thousand disabled, 80-220 thousand gypsies, 50- 200 thousand freemasons, and 5-15 thousand homosexuals were killed throughout the war. III. Other things that happened after WWII a. The Japanese invaded China, because they believed that they were the superior nation of the East. b. The US tried to create order to help prevent war, so the UN was formed. 1. There are 5 permanent representatives on the council with an absolute veto from US, Britain, France, Russia, and People’s Republic of China. 2. Other countries are upset that they don’t get an absolute veto. c. Keynes policies of free market with government intervention only if absolutely necessary were applied after the war. d. The IMF determines the worth of different currencies; it is lead by a French woman.
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