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Ch 6 Notes

by: Michelle Ibrahim
Michelle Ibrahim
Cal State Fullerton

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About this Document

This covers one week of notes for Ch 6
Sensation and Perception
James Neuse
Class Notes
sensation and perception
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michelle Ibrahim on Saturday April 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to psych 303 at California State University - Fullerton taught by James Neuse in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Sensation and Perception in Psychlogy at California State University - Fullerton.


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Date Created: 04/02/16
CH 6 Book Notes 03/09/2016 Beginning of psychology and attention  The effect of attention was described by William James, the first professor of psychology at Harvard  Scanning is necessary because there is only one place on the retina- the cone rich fovea that creates good detail vision o Scanning is necessary for the fovea What directs our attention  We first consider attention that is determined by stimuli that stand out because of their physical properties ▯ Stimuli Salience  Stimuli salience – refers to the physical properties such as color, contrast, movement, and orientation that make a particular object or location conspicuous  Procedures for determining how saliency influences how we scan a scene typically analyze characteristics such as color, orientation, and intensity at each location in a scene and combine theses value to create a saliency map ▯ Selection based on cognitive factors  top down processing ( a priori knowledge) is associated with scene schemas- an observers knowledge of what is contained in a typical scene  people tend to look longer at things that are not typical to a scene Ex. A printer in the kitchen. This is because attention is being affected by their knowledge of what is usually found in a scene  in an experiment by Hiroyuki Shinoda they measured observers fixations and tested their ability to detect traffic signals. They found that observers were more likely to detect stop signs positioned at intersections than those positioned in the middle of the block o the observers are using learning about regularities in the environment to determine when and where to look for stop signs  persons eye movement are usually determined by the task  in an experiment by Jelena Jovancevic Musisic and Mary Hayhoe they had a subject walk in a circular path passing by 3 pedestrians o the pedestrian that seemed to walk the closest to the participant was the one who the participant made the most eye contact with since they knew the next time passing the person would come very close. Looking at the pedestrian is a way to signal that the probability of colliding was more with this pedestrian so they looked up more to make sure no collision happened ▯ What happens when we attend  Attention enhances our responses to objects so we respond faster to the things that are located where we are attending  Perception of objects can make us see them easier  Physiological responding- attention can enhance neural firing to objects ▯ Attention speeds responding  People responded more to the valid trial where the arrow pointed to which side the square was going to appear o This is because they were cued to where to look  When the invalid trials were presented people did not respond as quick ▯ Attention can influence appearance  In an experiment done by Carassco he hypothesized that attention would cause an increase in the perceived contrast of the gratings o Participants who were flashed two different grattings the attention capturing dot has no effect o When participnats were shown two identical gratings participants were able to report the orientation of the one that was on the same side as the flashed cue  William James belived that attention makes an object clear and vivid ▯ Attention can influence physiological responding  The yellow in the circle of the image of brain activity is the “hot spot”, place of greatest activation  Attention can cause slight shifts in a receptive fields location on the retina  Receptive fields aren’t fixed but can move in response to where someone is looking/attending ▯ Attention necessary for perceiving scenes  Yes because in an experiment done by Cohen he tested subjects based on flashing pictures of a natural scene or car o 89% were able to detect the scene or the car o when paired with a central task like identifying number and letters on top of determining the scene or car only 69% got it right ▯ The distracting effect of task-irrelevant stimuli  Task irrelevalnt stimuli – stimuli that DON’T provide information relevant to the task with which we are involved  If task is easy then task-irrelevant stimuli have an effect on performance.  If task is hard task irrelevant stimuli have little or no effect on performance  Hard task results in slower reaction time  But when a task irrelevant stimulus is flashed off to the side like a pic of a carton than the easy task is effected by slower reaction time but for the hard task it is only slightly affected Attention and perceptual load  Load theory of attention- involves perceptual capacity and perceptual load o perceptual capacity- the idea that a person has a certain capacity that can be used for carrying out perceptual tasks o perceptual load- the amount of a persons perceptual capacity needed to carry out a particular perceptual task o low load tasks- use only a small amount of the persons perceptual capacity o high load- use more perceptual capacity Attention and experiencing a Coherent World  Binding- the process by which features – such as color, form, motion and location are combined to create our perception of a coherent object  IT (infertemporal cortex)- associated with perceiving forms  Feature integration theory- tackles the question of how we perceive individual features as part of the same object  preattentive stage- the first step of processing an image of an object. Objects are analyzed into the features color, shape, and movement (features separated)  focused attention stage- this is the second stage of feature detection where features are combined together, once the the feature have been combined we can perceive that object o during this stage the observers attention plays a big role in combining features to create perception  illusory conjunctions- the combination of features from different stimuli, can occur even if the stimuli differ in size and shape  Balint’s syndrome- inability to focus attention on individual objects  Feature analysis approach- involves mostly bottom up processing because knowledge is not usually involved, although in our everyday experience, in which we perceive familiar objects, top down processing combines with feature analysis to help us perceive things accurately ▯ Visual search  Visual search- is something we do anytime we look for an object among a number of other objects  Feature search- when you look for an object based on a single feature  Conjunction search- when you look for an object based off multiple features such as color and size Superior temporal sulcus- an area in the temporal lobe has been shown to be more sensitive to how other people direct their gaze in social situations Attention to Autism  Attention is important in social situations because it provides information about peoples thoughts, emotions, and feelings  Autism- a serious developmental disorder in which one of the major symptoms is the withdrawal of contact from other people o People with autism have a hard time making eye contact and have difficulty telling what emotions other are experiencing o It is due to how they are perceiving the situation o In an experiment done had autistic and non autistic people watch a movie, the non autistic people looked at where the actor was pointing and then back at the actor for a reaction. The autistic person looked elsewhere first and then back and forth between the pictures o Autistic people look more at things rather than non autistic people who look more at people o A theory of why autistic people do not look directly at subjects is because of negative emotional reactions of autistic observers this effects their ability to detect emotion and feelings if they are not looking at the person  Movement helped babies detect perceptual completeness of  Infants ability to perceive motion and specifically the common motion of objects Key terms:  Attention- the process of focusing on specific objects while ignoring others in the process  Visual scanning- one of the mechanisms for selecting certain things in the visual environment to attend to, looking from one place to another  Fixation (dots)- when you briefly pause on something in order to find what you are looking for  Saccadic eye movement (lines)- a rapid jerky movement from one fixation to the next  Overt attention- attention that involves looking directly at the attended object  Covert attention- attention without looking  Stimuli salience – refers to the physical properties such as color, contrast, movement, and orientation that make a particular object or location conspicuous  Attentional capture- when attention due to stimulus salience causes and involuntary shift of attention ex. A bright light, flash, loud noise can all draw us away from our attended stimuli  Scene schemas- an observers knowledge of what is usually found at a typical scene  Scene statistics- the probability of various things occurring in a dynamic enviornemt , similar to scene schemas  Same object advantage- the faster responding that occurs when enhancement spreads within an object  Inattentional blindness- not attending can cause use to miss things even if we are looking directly at them ex. Monkey video  Change blindness- difficulty detecting changes in a scene ex. When things in a scene were changed but we didn’t notice them  Dual task procedure- subjects are required to carry out simultaneously a central task and a peripheral task that involoves making a decision about the contents of a scene  Perceptual completeness- the perception of an object as extending behind occluding objects such as horizontal boards that partially block the view of a person  Habituation- when one stimulus is presented to the infant repeatedly and the infants looking time is measured on each presentation  Dishabituation- an increase in looking time when the stimulus is changed ▯ ▯


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