Cal State Fullerton
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michelle Ibrahim on Saturday April 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to psych 303 at California State University - Fullerton taught by James Neuse in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Sensation and Perception in Psychlogy at California State University - Fullerton.
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Date Created: 04/02/16
CH 7 Taking Action 03/15/2016 ▯ The ecological approach to perception A focus on observers moving through the environment and how they perceive things when they are in motion Studies movement and how it creates perceptual information that both fives further movement and helps observers perceive the environment Optic flow: movement o Gradient flow o Focus of expansion Invariant information- information that remains constant even with the observer us moving Optic flow provides invariant information because flow information is present as long as the observer is moving through the environment If the observer moves than the FOE (focus of expansion) shifts to a new location but it is still there FOE provides information about how fast a person is moving and where they are heading Other sources of invariant information indicate an objects size and its distance ▯ Self Produced Information This is when a person makes a movement, that movement creates information, and this information, in turn used to guide further movement o Ex. When someone is driving down the street, the car provides flow information and the observer uses that flow information to drive the car in the right direction o Ex 2. Somersaulting, experienced gynast had a harder time when closing their eyes because they can make changes in their movement mid somersault but for nongymnast they couldn’t tell the difference ▯ The scenes do not work in isolation Vision provides a frame of reference that helps the muscles constantly make adjustments to help maintain balance In the experiment with they swaying room it showed that infants as young as 4 months sway back and fourth in response to movements of a room, the combo of the rooms movements and the swaying becomes closer with age Navigation through the environment Optic flow provides information about where an observer is going Neurons in the brain that respond to flow patterns are found in the medial superior temporal area (MST) important for perceiving motion *The parietal reach region is involved in the reaching and grasping, the premotor cortex is involved in observing other peoples actions* ▯ Driving a Car FOE provides information about the place toward which a moving observer is headed However what they found was that instead if focusing on the FOE mot drivers look at a spot in front of their car rather than the FOE Drivers use information in addition to optic flow to determine the direction they are headed in. Walking Visual direction strategy- dos not require optic flow, the observer’s keep their body pointed toward a target Wayfinding when we travel to a destination we cant see from the starting point o such as walking to class on campus or driving to a location a few miles away a complex process that involves remembering objects, in the environment, knowing when to turn and in what direction navigate using landmarks (objects on the route that serve as cues to indicate where to turn) Important areas for navigation o parrahipocampal gyrus, hippocampus and retrosplenial decision point landmarks are more likely to be recognized and generate greater levels of brain activity Experiment: in an experiment done participants were asked to remember the layout of a museum in a virtual lab what they found was that objects that were decision land marks created the most amount of brain activity o but the advantage that the decision point objects also occurred for objects that were not remembered for the recognition test landmarks play an important role in wayfinding damage on the retrosplenial cortex or the hippocampus have been shown to be involved with navigation ▯ Affordances: what objects are used for Affordances- information that indicated what an object is used for o Example- affordances of the environment are what it offers the animal, what it provides for or furnishes o Potential for action is part of our perception of an object o Experiment- in an experience naming either 1) the objects name “cup” or 2) the objects function “something you can drink from” the participant was able to identify the object more rapidly when given the objects function o Temporal lobe damage makes it hard to name objects ▯ The physiology of reaching and grasping Damage to the ventral pathway has difficulty recognizing objects or judging their orientation Dorsal is judgment of location of an object o Positioning her hand on a cup to take a sip from, grasping the cup, lifting the cup is dorsal, ▯ The parietal reach region Important area of the brain for reaching and grasping is the parietal reach region at the end of the dorsal pathway o Visuomotor grip cells- neurons that respond to when someone is preparing to grasp a specific object but also when that item is viewed, neurons that respond when someone sees a specific object and also when someone is forming their hand to pick up the object This neuron is involved in perception and action Optic ataxia- people with parietal lobe damage that have difficulty pointing to visual stimuli o In an experiment patients with dorsal stream that was damaged played a role when avoiding obstacles ▯ Mirroring others actions in the brain These neurons are found in the premotor cortex Mirror neurons- neurons that respond both when a monkey observes someone else grasping an object such as food and when the monkey is actually grasping the food himself. Audiovisual mirror neurons- sounds that are assoiciated with actions, respond when a monkey performs a hand action and when it hears the sound associated with this action. Mirror neuron are is involved with the understanding the intentions behind action Mirror neurons code for “why” of actions or the intention behind the action and why we respond differently to different intentions Mirror neurons that respond to different intentions are responding to the action that is happening plus the sequence of actions that is most likely to follow Mirror neurons help us understand: o Communications based on facial expressions o Gestures used while speaking o The meaning of sentences o Difference between ourselves and others Play an important role in guiding social interactions ▯ Action based accounts of perception The expected difficulty of carrying out an action can influence a person judgement of an objects properties Experiment- physically fit and non fit people estimating the steepness of a hill. The less physically fit people perceived it as being steeper. Experiment: people carrying a basket of golf balls. People who thought they would be carrying the basket alone estimated it to be heavier (21 lbs) than people who thought they were going to be carrying it with another person 17.5 lbs. ▯ Key terms: Optic flow- all of the movement you are seeing, it provides information about how rapidly you are moving and where we are headed. Optic flow has two characteristics: o Gradient of flow- the different speed of flow, fast near the observers and slower farther away Focus of expansion- there is no flow at the destination toward which the observer is moving, the absence of flow at the destination point is the focus of expansion ▯ ▯
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