Week 2: Animal Nutrition
Week 2: Animal Nutrition Biol 204
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Benthem on Saturday April 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 204 at University of New Mexico taught by Dr. Marcy Litvak, Dr. Tom Kennedy in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Plant and Animal Form and Function in Biology at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 04/02/16
Animal Nutrition I. Trophic levels A. Autotroph B. Primary consumers – herbivore C. Secondary consumer – carnivore 1. Omnivore – Feeds in multiple trophic levels II. Nutritional requirements A. Chemical energy – convert into ATP. 10% body weight is mitochondria B. Organic building blocks C. Cellular metabolism – pyruvate and acetyl aldehyde are our building blocks. Also, they have 2 Carbons, so they give rise to even numbered fatty acids D. Essential nutrients – must be obtained through diet 1. Vitamins – organic molecules we can’t make. 13 essential vitamins a. Fat soluble – can build up in the body to toxic levels b. Water soluble – flushes right out (expensive pee) 2. Minerals – Ca, Mg, Fe, etc. 3. Essential amino acids – found in meat, eggs, cheese a. Complete protein – has all essential amino acids b. Incomplete protein – not all essential amino acids. Vegetarians have to pay attention to what plants they eat so they get them all 4. Essential Fatty acids – omega 3 and omega 6. Our bodies can’t synthesize the double bonds at those locations (the third and sixth carbons respectively). Sources include cold water fish, sunflower seeds, and flaxseed oil III. Feeding A. Suspension feeders – sift food particles out of the water. Baleen whales, sponges, etc. B. Deposit feeders – swallow nutrient rich sediment. Some sea cucumbers C. Fluid feeders – use modified mouth to suck fluid from host. Can be herbivore (butterfly) or carnivore (mosquito) D. Bulk / mass feeders – relatively large pieces of food 1. Mammals – chew their food (masticate) 2. Deep sea fish – gape limited IV. Dental adaptations – non-mammalian generally not as specialized A. Teeth – vertebrate teeth are composed of Ca and P B. Ganothostomes – jawed fish C. Sharks – teeth in skin. Allows constant regrowth. Teeth are serrated for ripping food apart D. Eel – pharyngeal jaw comes out of main jaw to pull food in E. Viper – fangs to inject victims with venom F. Mammals – different types of teeth. Only have two sets in order to maintain alignment which allows chewing V. Absorption of nutrients A. Ingestion B. Digestion – break down food into molecules 1. Incomplete digestive tract – gastrovascular cavity that has enzymes to break down food and transfer to cells. Leftovers leave through the mouth 2. Complete digestive tract – can be highly modified (birds, humans, etc) a. Serial digestion – different parts of the tract (digestive compartments) have different enzymes that break down the food differently (stomach, small intestine). 3. Accessory glands – saliva, pancreas, liver, etc.