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Gen Psychology Notes (Bundle includes notes from Chapters 2 - 15)

by: Sarini Saksena

Gen Psychology Notes (Bundle includes notes from Chapters 2 - 15) PSYC 1001 - General Psychology

Marketplace > George Washington University > Psychlogy > PSYC 1001 - General Psychology > Gen Psychology Notes Bundle includes notes from Chapters 2 15
Sarini Saksena
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This bundle of notes covers chapters 2 - 15 in great detail. Its perfect for the whole year and is extremely helpful in studying for midterms and finals. These notes helped me get an A in the class...
General Psychology
Class Notes
Intro to Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, learning, Psychology




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This 80 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarini Saksena on Saturday December 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1001 - General Psychology at George Washington University taught by Fettig in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 98 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 12/12/15
Biological Perspective Part 1 06/11/2016 ▯ Biological Psyc/ Behavioral Neuroscience ▯ A neuroscientific approach to understanding the brain and behavior ▯ Focuses on the biological bases of psychological processes, behavior and learning ▯ ▯ Brain Cells ▯ Neurons - have dendrites, which receive input, a some of cell body and  Dendrites – receives messages  Soma (cell body) – contains nucleus and keeps cell alive  Axon – carry messages to other cells  Myelin sheath - insulates and protects axons  Synaptic knobs – space ▯ ▯ Glial cells – influence and impact thinking, learning and memory ▯ Some glial provide insulation for the axons of specific cells ▯ Possible role in psychiatric disorders ▯ ▯ Schwan cells - produce myelin for the neurons of the body ▯ ▯ Neural impulse ▯ 1. Outside neuron positive (positive charged sodium ions) ▯ Inside neuron negative (negatively charged potassium) ▯ This is called the resting potential ▯ ▯ Stimulation activates dendrites which leads to… ▯ ▯ 2. Reverses the charge positive Na enters the cells ▯ This is called the action potential ▯ ▯ Neuron fire in an all or nothing manner ▯ ▯ Communicate through the synapse Synapse – fluid filled space between the synaptic knob of one cell and the dendrites or the surface of the next cell Neurotransmitters – chemicals found in the synaptic vesicles Neurotransmitters can either turn cells on or of Excitatory synapse- synapse at which a n.t causes the receiving cell to fire Inhibitory synapse at which a neurotransmitter causes the receiving cell to stop firing Types of Neurotransmitters Serotonin – mood, sleep and appetite Dopamine – control of movement and sensation of pleasure Acetylcholine – attention, memory and contractions Endorphin – pain relief Norepinephrine – arousal and mood GABA – sleep and inhibits movement Glutamate - learning, formation, memory and nervous system Example Cocaine inhibits reuptake Reuptake – a process by which n.t are sucked back into the presynaptic neuron Central NS - Brain and Spinal cord Peripheral NS - Autonomic NS and Somatic NS Autonomic - Parasympathetic (maintains body functions and saves energy) - Sympathetic (react in times of stress. Fight or flight) Somatic - Sensory (carries messages from senses to CNS - Motor system (carries messages from CNS to muscles and glands) Reflex arc: three types of neurons Efferent (motor neuron) Interneurons (communication between aff and eff neurons) Afferent (sensory neurons) Neuroplasticity and Stem Cells Neuroplasticity – the ability within the brain to constantly change both the structure and function of many cells in response to experience or traumas Stem cells – special cells found in all the tissues of the body that are capable of becoming other cell types when those cells need to be replaced due to damage or ear and tear Peripheral NS Autonomic NS Fight of flight (sympathetic) - dilates pupils and inhibits tear glands - decreases salvation - increases heart rate - dilates bronchi - decreases digestive function of stomach, pancreas and intestines - inhibits bladder contractions After exposure to stress parasympathetic system kicks in Rest and digest - increases salvation - constics pupils and stimulates tear glands - slows heart rate - contricts bronchi - increases digestive function of stomach, prancreas and intestines allows bladder contraction Endocrine Glands Secrete chemicals directly into the bloodstream (hormones) Pituitary Gland (below the hypothalamus) - anterior - posterior o controls level of slat, water, onset of labor and lactation, growth hormone and influenceing the activiry of the other glands Pineal gland - melatonin o sleep cycle Thyroid gland - metabolism Pancreas - insulin o (decreases blood glucose level) - glucagon o (increases blood glucose level) Adrenal Glands - corticoids o salt intake, stress and sexual development - epinephrine - norepinephrine Gonads - ovaries and testes Hormones and Stress Alarm  sympathetic ns  adrenal glands release hormones Resistance  body settles into sympathetic division activity ▯ Exhaustion  Resources gone, possible stress related disease ▯ Hormones and Stress ▯ ▯ The General adaptation syndrome ▯ 1. alarm  sympathetic ns activated  adrenal glands release hormones ▯ 2. resistance  body settles into sympathetic division activity ▯ 3. Exhaustion  resources gone, possible stress related disease ▯ ▯ ANS ▯ Immune system and stress ▯ Stress  immune system to react as though an illness or invading organism has been detected, increasing the functioning of the immune system  As stress continues, the immune system can start to fail ▯ Possible health consequences  Heart diseases  Cancer  Type 2 diabetes ▯ ▯ Lesioning studies  study brains that have been damaged  in animal research  destroy certain areas of the brain  use electrical stimulation of certain area to see brain’s response ▯ ▯ Brain stimulation  Temporarily disrupt or enhance the normal functioning of brain electrical impulse o Deep brain stimulation (DSB)  Parkinsons patients o Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)  Larger area of the brain  Schizophrenic patients o Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)  Smaller more specific part of the brain ▯ ▯ Neuroimaging techniques ▯ ▯ Mapping structure  CT scan (shows scull and the brain structure)  MRI (magnetic field) ▯ Mapping Function  EEG (electrical activity of the brain, understand the surface of the brain, event related potential)  PET (positron emission topography, color coded radioactive sugar, computer reads where substance goes and the flow of the brain, more color = more activity)  SPECT (ingested dye that computer can track to determine brain activity)  fMRI (it allows for us to understand the activity of the brain during different stimuli exposure) ▯ ▯ BRAIN ▯ ▯ Forebrain  cortex  basal ganglia  limbic system ▯ ▯ Midbrain  sensory  motor ▯ ▯ Hindbrain  Medulla  pons  cerebellum ▯ ▯ Limbic system ▯ ▯ Thalamus  Relays info from sensory organs to the cerebral cortex ▯ Hypothalamus  Regulates the around of fear  Thirst  sexual drive  aggression ▯ Hippocampus  Learning, memory, sensory information to expectation ▯ Amygdala  Motivation, emotional control, mood, fear response and interpretations of nonverbal emotional expressions ▯ Cingulate cortex  Primary cortical component of the limbic system involved in cognitive processing ▯ ▯ Cortex ▯ Outermost part of the brain and made up of tightly packed neurons  Full of wrinkles to increase surface area, make room for neural connections ▯ Corticaization  Increase in wrinkling greater amounts of corticalization are associated with increases in size and complexity ▯ ▯ 2 Hemispheres ▯ Cerebral hemispheres which are connected by the corpus collosum ▯ ▯ Coprus collosum allows the two hemispheres to communicate with each other. ▯ ▯ Frontal lobe  Front of the cortex and contains motor cortex o Voluntary muscles o Higher mental functions  Planning  Language  Complex decision making  Mirror neurons o Fire when you watch someone else watch and action ▯ ▯ Occipital lobe  Back of the brain and base of each hemisphere o Processes vision o Contains the primary visual cortex ▯ ▯ Parietal lobes  At the top and back of the cortex o Somatosensory area  Sense of touch  Temperature  Body position ▯ ▯ Temporal lobe  Sides of the brain o Contains the primary auditory area o Understanding language ▯ Motor cortex  Located in the frontal lobe  Controls the voluntary muscles of the body  Cells at the top of the motor cortex controls the muscles bottom of the body  Cells at the bottom of the motor cortex controls the muscles top of the body  Body parts are drawn larger or smaller according to the number of cortical cells devoted to that body part ▯ ▯ Somatosensory cortex  Located in parietal lobe  Receives information about the sense of touch and body position ▯ ▯ Association areas  Areas with in each lobe of the cortex responsible for coordination and interpretation of information as well as higher mental processing o Broca’s area o Wernicke’s area ▯ ▯ Broca’s Area  In the left frontal lobe  Responsible for producing fluent understandable speech o If damaged, the Broca’s aphasia in which words will be halting and pronounced incorrectly ▯ ▯ Wernicke’s Area  Left temporal lobe of the cortex  responsible for the understanding of language o If damaged, the Wernicke’s aphasia in which speech is fluent but nonsensical o Wrong words are used ▯ ▯ Split brain research  Corpus callosum is severed to reduce seizures o Left visual field  Right hemisphere o Right visual field  Left hemisphere ▯ * jack turner ▯ Somesthetic Senses ▯ How do we experience the senses of touch, pressure, temperature etc. ▯ ▯ Different receptors in the layers of the skin ▯ Kinesthetic and Vestibular senses  Kinesthetic - Location of body parts in relation to another  Vestibular - Having to do with body movement and body position, like balance ▯ ▯ Pain sensation  Visceral pain o Receptions that detect pain in the organs ▯  Somatic pain o Pain in the skin, sharp pain ▯ ▯ Disorders ▯ Congenital analgesia (CIPA) and congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis  inability to feel pain ▯ ▯ Phantom limb pain  when a person who has had a limb removed sometimes feels pain in the missing limb  50% - 80% of people with amputation experience this sensation ▯ ▯ Pain: Gate-control theory  pain signals must pass through a “gate” located in the spinal cord  substance P ▯ ▯ Perception ▯ Size, Shape and Brightness ▯ ▯ Gestalt Principles  Figure ground o the tendency to perceive objects, or figures, as existing on a back- ground.  Reversible figures o Visual illusions in which the figure and ground can be reversed.  Proximity o the tendency to perceive objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping. o  Similarity o tendency to perceive things that look similar to part be of the same group  Closure o the tendency to complete figures that are incomplete.  Continuity o the tendency to perceive things as simply as possible with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex, broken-up pattern.  Contiguity o the tendency to perceive two things that happen close together in time as being related.  Common region o Tendency to perceive objects that are in a common area or region as being in a group ▯ ▯ Monocular cues ▯ Cues based on determining depth based on one eye only  Overlap o Assumption that an object that appears to be blocking part of another object is in front of the second object and closer to the viewer  Linear Perspective o The tendency for par- allel lines to appear to converge on each other.  Relative size o perception that occurs when objects that a person expects to be of a certain size appear to be small and are, therefore, assumed to be much farther away. ▯ ▯ Binocular cues ▯ Cues based on determining depth based on both eyes  Convergence o the rotation of the two eyes in their sockets to focus on a single object, resulting in greater convergence for closer objects and lesser convergence if objects are distant. ▯ ▯ Factors influencing perception ▯ ▯ Bottom-up processing ▯ Involves the analysis of smaller features building up to a complete perception ▯ ▯ Top-down processing ▯ Involves the use of preexisting knowledge to organize individual features into a unified whole ▯ ▯ Neuroscience of Magic ▯ End-stopped neurons  Visual cortex, sensitive to motion and edges  These neurons respond differently is an object is bouncing, causing perception of bending What is perception?  The way you think about or understand someone or something  The ability to understand or notice something easily  The way that you notice or understand something using one of your senses ▯ ▯ ▯ Consciousness – A person’s awareness of everything that I going on around him or her at any given moment ▯ ▯ Walking Consciousness  State in which thoughts and feeling and sensations are clear and organized  Person feels alert ▯ ▯ Altered State of Consciousness  State in which there is a shift in the quality or pattern of mental activity as compared to waking consciousness ▯ ▯ Necessity of Sleep ▯ Circadian Rhythm: A cycle of bodily rhythm that occurs over a twenty-four-hour period ▯ ▯ Hypothalamus: tiny section of the brain that influences that glandular system  Suprachiasmatic nucleus o Deep within the hypothalamus o The internal clock that tells people when to wake up and when to fall asleep  The hypothalamus tells the pineal gland to secrete melatonin o Melatonin makes a person feel sleepy ▯ Microsleeps: Brief sidesteps into sleep lasting only a few seconds Sleep Deprivation: any significant loss of sleep  Results in irritability and concentration problems ▯ ▯ REM (rapid eye movement): stage of sleep where the eyes move rapidly under the eyelids if the person is experiencing a dream ▯ ▯ NREM (non-REM): any stages of sleep that don’t include REM Brainwave Patterns Electroencephalograph (EEG)  Allows scientists to see the brainwave of a person as they pass the various stages of sleep to determine if they are in REM or NREM o Alpha waves: Brain waves that indicate a state of relaxation or light sleep o Theta waves: early stages o Delta waves: long, slow waves which indicate deep sleep ▯ ▯ Stages of Sleep ▯ N3 (R&K Stages 3 and 4): Delta Waves Pronounced  Deepest stage of sleep o 50% of waves are delta  body at low level of functions  time where most growth hormone is released ▯ ▯ REM Sleep and Dreaming ▯ REM sleep: is paradoxical sleep (high level of brain activity)  If wakened during REM sleep, sleepers can describe a dream ▯ REM rebound: increased amounts of REM sleep after being deprived of REM sleep on earlier nights ▯ ▯ Sleep Disorders  Nightmares: Bad dreams during REM  REM Behavior disorder: acting our the nightmare o Mechanism that blocks the movement of the voluntary muscle fails o Person thrash around  Sleepwalking (somnambulism): moving around, walking in sleep o Occurs in deep sleep o Common around children then among adults  Night Terrors: extreme nightmares and experience extreme fears o Doesn’t wake fully o Rare disorder o Creams or runs around in deep sleep  Insomnia: the inability to get and stay asleep o Not a good quality of sleep  Sleep apnea: person stops breathing for half a minute or more o Continuous positive airway pressure device (CPAP)  Narcolepsy: person falls immediately into REM sleep during the day without warning o Cataplexy: sudden loss of muscle tone ▯ ▯ Dreams ▯ Freud: dreams as fulfillment  Interpretation of Dreams (1900)  Dreams revealed problems from conflict and events buried in unconscious ▯ ▯ Researches have discovered evidence for explaining dreams  Activations-synthesis hypothesis: dreams are created by the higher centers of the cortex to explain the brain stem’s activation of cortical cells during REM sleep periods  PET scans: lots of activity in the pons  Cortex creating a story based on the activity/communication going on between the cortex and thalamus ▯ ▯ Activation-information-mode model (AIM)  Revised version of the activation-synthesis explanation of dreams  Information that is accessed during waking hours can have an influence on the synthesis of dreams ▯ ▯ Hypnosis: State of consciousness in which the person is especially susceptible to suggestion ▯ Four Elements of Hypnosis  Hypnotist tells the subject to focus on what is being said  Subject is told to relax and feel tired  The hypnotist telling the subject to “let go” and accept suggestions easily  Subject is to told to use vivid imagination ▯ ▯ Hypnotic susceptibility: degree to which a person is a good hypnotic subject Theories of hypnosis Hypnosis as dissociation: hypnosis in a person’s intermediate consciousness, while a hidden observe remains aware of all that was going on Social-cognitive theory of hypnosis: people who are hypnotized are not in an altered state, but are merely playing the role expected for them in the situation ▯ Meditation: a series of mental exercises meant to refocus attention and achieve a trancelike state of consciousness  Relaxation  Coping  Low BP  Chronic pain ▯ ▯ Being under the influence ▯ Psychoactive drugs: drugs that alter thinking, perception and memory ▯ ▯ Physical dependence (body’s chemistry)  Tolerance: more and more of the drug is needed to achieve the same affect o Reuptake is affected  Withdrawal: physical symptoms resulting from a lack of an addictive drug in the body systems o Cause nausea, pain, tremors, terrors, crankiness and high BP ▯ ▯ Psychological dependence  The feeling that a drug is NEEDED to continue a feeling of emotional or psychological wellbeing ▯ ▯ Stimulants: drugs that increase the functioning of the nervous system  Amphetamines: made in the labs. Drugs are synthesized rather found in nature  Cocaine: natural drugs, produces euphoria, energy, power and pleasure  Nicotine: in tobacco  Caffeine: found in coffee, tea, sodas, chocolate and over the counter drugs ▯ ▯ Nicotine ▯ Harmful effects of nicotine are now well known, but many people continue to smoke or chew tobacco in spite or warnings  Has both psychological and physical dependence  Has cues (part of a routine)  Physical addiction and psychological o Necessity ▯ ▯ Smoking  Knowing that smoking can lead to death, when applied to themselves people show an optimist bias that lead them to believe that those statistics won’t apply to themselves ▯ ▯ Depressants: drugs that decrease the functioning of the nervous system  Barbiturates: depressant drugs that have a sedative effect  Benzodiazepines: drugs that lower anxiety and reduce stress  Rohypnol: the “date rape” drug ▯ Alcohol: the chemical resulting from fermentation or distillation of various kinds of vegetable matter  Often mistaken for a stimulant, alcohol is actually a CNS depressant ▯ ▯ Narcotics: Opium related drugs  Suppress the sensation of pain by binding to and stimulating the nervous system’s natural receptor sites for endorphins o Opium: substance made from the opium poppy and from which all narcotic drugs are derives o Morphine: narcotic drug used to treat severe pain o Heroin: narcotic drug that is extremely addictive ▯ ▯ Psyc Lecture 9: 9/24/15 ▯ ▯ Hallucinogens: produce hallucinations or increased feelings of relaxation and intoxication  Drugs that cause false sensory messages, altering the perception of reality  LSD: powerful synthetic hallucinogen  PCP” synthesized drug now used as an animal tranquilizer that cause stimulant, depressant, narcotic or hallucinogenic effects. ▯ ▯ Psychogenic Drugs  MDMA (ecstasy or X): designer drugs that can have both stimulant and hallucinatory effects  Stimulatory: mixture of psychomotor stimulant and hallucinogenic effect ▯ ▯ Marijuana (pot or weed): mild hallucinogen derived from leaves and flowers of a particular type of hemp plant Hypnogogic hallucination: hallucination that can occur just as a person is entering N1 sleep Hypnopompic hallucination: hallucination that happens just as a person is in the state between REM sleep (in which the voluntary msucles are paralyzed) and fully awake ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Learning: any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice  When people learn anything, some part of their brain is physically changed to record what they have learned.  Any kind of change in the way an organism behaves is learning ▯ ▯ Pavlov and Classical Conditioning ▯ Ivan Pavlov: Russian physiologist (person who studies workings of the body) discovered classical conditioning through his work on digestion in dogs ▯ ▯ Classical Conditioning: learning to make a reflex response to a stimulus other than the original, natural stimulus that normally produces the reflex ▯ ▯ Classical conditioning concepts: ▯ 1. Unconditioned stimulus (UCS): Naturally occurring stimulus that leads to an involuntary response. ▯ (Unconditioned means unlearned to naturally occurring) ▯ Unconditioned response (UCR): An involuntary response to a naturally occurring or unconditioned stimulus ▯ ▯ 2. Conditioned stimulus (CS): Stimulus that becomes able to produce a learned reflex response by being paired with the original unconditioned stimulus ▯ (Conditioned means learned) ▯ A Neutral Stimulus (NS): Becomes conditioned stimulus when paired with an unconditioned stimulus ▯ ▯ 3. Conditioned response (CR): learned reflex response to a conditioned stimulus ▯ (Conditioned reflex) ▯ CS: ice cream truck ▯ CR: salivation when one hears ice cream truck bell UCS  UCR Loud noise Startle ▯ ▯ CS  UCS  UCR ▯ Bunny Loud noise Startle ▯ ▯ CS  CR ▯ Loud noise Startle ▯ ▯ 4. Acquisition: Repeated pairing of the NS and the USC; the organism is in the process of acquiring learning ▯ Although classical conditioning happens quite easily, there are a few basic principles that researchers have discovered  CS comes before UCS  CS and USC must come very close together in time, only occur several seconds apart  NS must be paired with USC several time, many times before conditioning can take place ▯ ▯ 5. CS is usually some stimulus that is distinctive or stands out from other competing stimuli ▯ Stimulus generalization: tendency to respond to a stimulus that is only similar to the original conditioned stimulus with the conditioned response. ▯ ▯ 6. Stimulus discrimination: tendency to stop making a generalized response to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus because the similar stimulus is never paired with the unconditioned stimulus. ▯ ▯ 7. Extinction: disappearance or weakening of a learned response following the removal or absence of the unconditioned stimulus (in classical conditioning) or the removal of a reinforce (in operant conditioning) ▯ ▯ 8. Spontaneous recovery: reappearance of a learned response after extinction. (Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior) ▯ High order conditioning  A Strong conditioned stimulus is paired with a neutral stimulus  A neutral stimulus becomes a second conditioned stimulus ▯ ▯ (In Stage 1, a strong salivation response is conditioned to occur to the sound of the metronome (CS1). In Stage 2, finger snapping (CS2) is repeatedly paired with the ticking of the metronome (CS1) until the dog begins to salivate to the finger snapping alone. This is called “higher-order conditioning,” because one CS is used to create another, “higher” CS.) ▯ ▯ Conditioned emotional response (CER): emotional response that has become classically conditioned to occur to learned stimulus ▯ ex. fear of dogs, the emotional reaction that occurs when seeing an attractive person ▯ CER’s may lead to phobias – irrational fear responses ▯ Ex. Conditioning of Little Albert ▯  UCS  UCR ▯ Dog bite Frightened ▯  CS  UCS  UCS ▯ Sight of dog Dog Bite Frightened ▯  CS  CR ▯ Sight of dog Racing heart ▯ ▯ Vicarious conditioning: classical conditioning of a reflex response or emotion by watching the reaction of another person ▯ ▯ Conditioned taste aversion: development of a nausea or aversion response to a particular taste because that taste was followed by a nausea reaction (occurs after only one association) ▯ ▯ Biological Preparedness: the tendency of animals to learn certain associations, such as taste and nausea with only one or few pairing due to the survival value of the learning ▯ ▯ Why Classical Conditioning works? ▯ 1. Stimulus substitution: original theory in which Pavlov stated that classical conditioning occurred because the conditioned stimulus became a substitute for the unconditioned stimulus by being paired closely together ▯ ▯ 2. Cognitive perspective: modern theory in which CC is seen to occur because the conditioned stimulus provides information or expectancy about the coming of the unconditioned stimulus ▯ ▯ What is Operant Conditioning ▯ 1. Operant conditioning: the learning of voluntary behavior through the effects of pleasant and unpleasant consequences to responses ▯ ▯ 2. Thorndike’s Law of Efect:  If a response is followed by a pleasurable consequence it will tend to be repeated  If a response is followed by an unpleasant consequence, it will tend not to be repeated ▯ ▯ Skinner:  Behaviorist; wanted to study only observable behavior  Developed theory of operant conditioning o Operant means any behavior that is voluntary  Learning depends on what happens after the response: the consequence Reinforcement: any event or stimulus that when following a response increase the probability that the response will occur again  Primary reinforce: any reinforce that is naturally reinforcing by meeting a basic biological need, such as hunger, thirst or touch  Secondary reinforce: any reinforce that becomes reinforcing after being paired with primary reinforce such as praise, tokens or gold stars ▯ ▯ Positive vs. Negative ▯ Positive reinforcement: the reinforcement of a response by the addition or experience of a pleasurable stimulus ▯ Negative reinforcement: the reinforcement of a response by the removal, escape from or avoidance of an unpleasant stimulus  Example: taking aspirin for a headache is negatively reinforced by the removal of the headache ▯ ▯ ▯ Schedules of Reinforcement Partial reinforcement efect: a response that is reinforced after some, but not all correct responses tend to be very resistant to extinction Continuous reinforcement: reinforcement of each and every correct response ▯ Fixed schedule of reinforcement: the interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is always the same ▯ Variable interval schedule of reinforcement: the interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is different for each trail or event ▯ Fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement: the number of responses required for reinforcement is always the same ▯ Variable ratio schedule of reinforcement: a schedule of reinforcement in which the number of responses required for reinforcement is different for each trail or event. ▯ ▯ Punishment ▯ Punishment: ay event or object that, when following a response makes that response less likely to happen again  Punishment by application: the punishment of a response by addition or experience of an unpleasant stimulus  Punishment by removal: the punishment of a response by the removal of a pleasurable stimulus ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Problems with Punishment: ▯ Severe punishment:  May cause avoidance of the punisher instead of the behavior being punished  May encourage lying to avoid punishment  Creates fear and anxiety ▯ ▯ How to make punishment more efective:  Punishment should immediately follow the bad behavior  Punishment should be consistent  Punishment of wrong behavior be paired with reinforcement of good behavior ▯ ▯ Operant stimuli and stimulus control ▯ Discriminative stimulus: any stimulus, such as a stop sign or a doorknob that provides the organism with a cue for making a certain response in order to obtain reinforcement ▯ ▯ Extinction occurs if the behavior (response) is not reinforced.  One way to deal with a child’s temper tantrum is to ignore it; lack of reinforcement for the reinforcement for the tantrum behavior will eventually result in extinction ▯ Operantly conditioned response also can be generalized to stimuli that are only similar – not identical – to the original stimulus Spontaneous recovery: reoccurrence of a once-extinguished response, also happens in operant conditioning ▯ Shaping: reinforcement of simple steps, leading to a desired complex behavior ▯ Successive approximation: small steps, one after another, that lead to particular goal behavior ▯ ▯ Behavior Resistant to Conditioning ▯ Instinctive drift: the tendency for an animal’s behavior to revert to genetically controlled patterns  Animal comes in with certain genetically determined instinctive patterns of behavior already in place  These instinct differ from species to species  There are some responses that simple cannot be trained to animal regardless of conditioning ▯ Example: Raccoons dunk their food in and out of water before eating, washing behavior is controlled by instinct and is difficult to change even using operant techniques ▯ ▯ Behavior Modification ▯ Behavior Modification: use of operant conditioning techniques to bring about desired changes in behavior ▯ Token economy: a type of behavior modification in which desired behavior is rewarded with tokens ▯ Time-out: mild punishment by removal in which a misbehaving person is place in special area away from attention to others  Removed from any possibility of positive reinforcement in the form of attention ▯ Applied behavior analysis (ABA): modern term for a form of behavior modification that uses shaping techniques to mold a desired behavior or response ▯ ▯ Biofeedback and neurofeedback ▯ Biofeedback: use of feedback about biological conditions to bring involuntary responses such as blood pressure and relaxation under voluntary control ▯ ▯ Neurofeedback: form of biofeedback using devices (EEG, fMRI) to provide feedback about brain activity in an effort to modify behavior ▯ ▯ Cognitive Learning Theory: ▯ Focus was on behavior ▯ 1950’s, psychologists were becoming aware that in cognition, the mental events that take place inside a person’s mind during behavior could no longer be ignored ▯ ▯ Latent Learning ▯ Edward tolman; cognitive scientist ▯ Maze Experiment ▯ 1: rewarded  learning quickly ▯ 2: 10 days, reward last day  learning after award ▯ 3: no reward  no learning ▯ ▯ Latent learning: learning that remains hidden until application becomes useful ▯ ▯ Insight: Kohler ▯ Insight: sudden perception of relationships among various parts of problems, allowing the solution to the problem to come quickly  Not gained through trial and error  Light bulb moment ▯ ▯ Learned Helplessness: tendency to fail to act to escape from situation because of a history of repeated failures in the past ▯ ▯ Positive psychology: a new way of looking at the entire concept of mental health and therapy that focuses on the adaptive, creative and psychological more fulfilling aspects of human experience rather than on mental disorders ▯ ▯ Example: In Seligman’s studies of learned helplessness, dogs were placed in a two-sided box. Dogs that had no prior experience with being unable to escape a shock would quickly jump over the hurdle in the center of the box to land on the “safe” side. Dogs that had previously learned that escape was impossible would stay on the side of the box in which the shock occurred, not even trying to go over the hurdle. ▯ ▯ Observational learning: learning new behavior by watching a model perform that behavior ▯ Learning/performance distinction: learning can take place w/o actual performance of the learned behavior ▯ Example: bandura’s bobo doll experiment ▯ ▯ 1. Attention  to learn anything through observation, the learner must first pay attention to the model ▯ 2. Memory  learner must retain memory of what was done, like remembering steps in cooking seen in cooking show ▯ 3. Imitation  capable of reproducing, or imitating, the actions of the model ▯ 4. Motivation  must have desire to perform the action ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Chapter 6: Memory 1. Define memory and the three processes of memory Memory: active system that receives information from the senses, organizes and alters that information as it stores it away, and then retrieves the information from storage  Encoding: the set of mental operations that people perform on sensory information in order to convert it into a form that is usable in a brain’s storage system  Storage: holding onto information for some period of time  Retrieval: getting information that is in storage into a form that can be used 2. Explain the information processing model of memory Processing of information for memory storage is similar to the way in which a compute processes memory, in a series of three stages.. Parallel distributed processing (PDP) model: memory processes proposed to take place at the same time over a large network of neural connections Info that is more deeply processed because of meaning and significance will be remembered for a longer period of time than something that is remembered only for its sound of physical characteristics 3. Explain the process of sensory memory (e.g. iconic and echoic memory) Sensory Memory: very first stage (info enters NS)  Iconic – visual (lasts seconds o Capacity – seen at one time o Duration – info pushed out by new info, masking  Echoic – hearing o Capacity – limited, smaller than iconic o Duration - Last longer than iconic, two – four secs 4. Describe short-term memory and distinguish from working memory STM – information is held for brief periods of time while being used STM is 7#;s Chunking: info combined into units or chunks so that more info can be held in STM Maintenance rehearsal: saying bits of info to be remembered over and over in head (encoded in auditory form) STM: 12 – 30 and susceptible to interference 5. Explain long-term memory & distinguish between non-declarative and declarative memories LTM: information placed to kept more or less permanently Lots of rehearsal: STM – LMT by making info useful Non-declarative: skills, procedure, habits and conditioned Reponses  Not conscious but their existence is implied because they affect conscious behavior  Emotional associations, habits and reflexes  Muscle memory almost, ie playing piano ▯ Declarative: Not easy brought into conscious awareness. LTM containing info that is conscious and known. ▯ Semantic: general knowledge, language and info from school ▯ Episodic: personal info, daily activities and events  Memory for facts  Amnesia: can’t form long term memories ▯ 6. Retrieval of long-term memories Concepts that a re related to one another are stored physically close to each other than they are to unrelated concepts. 7. How do cues efect memory retrieval? Cues: stimulus for remembering Priming: experience with info or concepts can improve late performance 8. Encoding specificity Tendency for memory of information to be improved if related information (e.g., surroundings or physiological state) available when the memory was first formed is also available when the memory is being retrieved Being around something that you were around when memory was first formed 9. State-dependent learning ▯ memories formed during a particular physiological or psychological state will be easier to recall while in a similar state ▯ 10. Distinguish between recall and recognition Recall: memory retrieval in which the information to be retrieved must be “pulled” from memory with very few external cues Tip of the tongue Recognition: the ability to match a piece of information or a stimulus to a stored image or fact 11. Problems with eyewitness recognition Showed that what people see and hear about an event after the fact can easily affect the accuracy of their memories of that event 12. Explain how memories are reconstructed (e.g. constructive processing) ▯ memories are “built,” or reconstructed, from information stored during encoding memories may be altered, revised, or influenced by newer information. 13. What are some problems associated with this? (e.g. hindsight bias, misinformation efect) ▯ Hindsight - the tendency to falsely believe, through revision of older memories to include newer information, that one could have correctly predicted the outcome of an event ▯ Misinformation effect - the tendency of misleading information presented after an event to alter the memories of the event itself False memory syndrome: the creation of inaccurate or false memories through the suggestion of others, often while the person is under hypnosis Hippocampus: the area of brain responsible for the formation of LTM 14. Ebbinghaus and the “curve of forgetting” ▯ a graph showing a distinct pattern in which forgetting is very fast within the first hour after learning a list and then tapers off gradually 15. Define amnesia Retrograde amnesia: loss of memory from the point of some injury or trauma backwards, or loss of memory for the past ▯ Anterograde amnesia: loss of memory from the point of injury or trauma forward, or the inability to form new long-term memories ▯ ▯ Define cognition and explain how mental images and concepts are involved in the process of thinking ▯ Cognition: activity when person is processing info  What are mental images? o Mental reps the stand for objects and events that have picture like quality  What are concepts? o Ideas the represent a class or category of objects  Formal – specific rules  Natural – experiences  Prototype – characteristics of concept ▯ ▯ Describe methods used to solve problems and make decisions.  Trial and Error: trying all solutions till one is found  Algorithim: specific, step by step, mathematical formulas  Heuristic: educated guess based on prior experience, rule of thumb o Representative: something sharing characteristics with other members that belong in a category, original things also belongs in that category. o Availability: frequency of event based on easy recall and examples  Insight: aha moment, sudden perception and solution ▯ ▯ Barriers to problem solving  Functional fixedness: block to problem solving, thinking of objects in term of their typical functions  Mental set: only use techniques that have worked in the past  Confirmation bias: search for evidence that fits a person’s beliefs, ignores other evidence ▯ ▯ What is divergent thinking and why is it so important? What are some ways to increase divergent thinking? ▯ Divergent thinking: person starts from one point and comes up with different ideas of possibilities based on that point, type of creativity ▯ How to increase: brainstorming, journal, free writing, subject mapping ▯ ▯ Compare and contrast different theories on the nature of intelligence. (Spearman, Gander, Triarchic) ▯ Spearman:  G factor: reason and solve problems, general intelligence  S factor: specific intelligence ▯ ▯ Gander (9)  Linguistic (writers)  Musical  Math  Visual (pilots)  Movement (dance and sports)  Interpersonal (psyc)  Naturalist (famers, biologists)  Existentialist (philosophers) ▯ ▯ Sternberg/ Triarchic: analytical (problem solving), creative (innovative), practical (street smarts) ▯ ▯ Identify methods of measuring IQ AND Identify ways in which we evaluate the quality of a test. ▯ IQ: division of mental age by chronological age x 100  Standardization – test  large group of people whom the test is designed for  Reliability – be able to repeat  Validity – actually accurate ▯ ▯ Define intellectual disability, giftedness, and Emotional Intelligence. ▯ ▯ ID: deficits in mental ability and adaptive behavior, IQ <70. Cause = environment or genetic ▯ Giftedness: IQ >130 ▯ EI: manage own emotions, be self-motivated, fell what others feels, socially skilled. ▯ IQ and genes related, IG heritability = .5 ▯ ▯ Define language and identify its different elements and structure. ▯ System for combining symbols (words) to unlimited # of meaningful statements to communicate ▯ - grammar (structure) ▯ - phonemes (sound) ▯ - morpheme (meaning) ▯ - syntax (combination) ▯ - semantics (rules) ▯ - pragmatics (social) ▯ ▯ Does language influence how people think? ▯ Though processes and concepts are controlled by languages ▯ Concepts are universal and influence the development of language ▯ ▯ Define motivation ▯ Extrinsic motivation: a person performs an action because it leads to an outcome that is separate from or external to the person ▯ Intrinsic motivation: a person performs an action because the act is fun, challenging, or satisfying in an internal manner ▯ ▯ Define instinct approach to motivation ▯ Instincts: the biologically determined and innate patterns of behavior that exist in both people and animals ▯ Instinct approach: approach to motivation that assumes people are governed by instincts similar to those of animals ▯ ▯ Define drive-reduction approach to motivation ▯ Need: the requirement for some material (such as food or water) that is essential to the survival of the organism Drive: a psychological tension and physical arousal; arises when there is a need that motivates the organism to act in order to fulfill the need and reduce the tension ▯ needs that cause internal drives to push the organism to satisfy the need and reduce tension and arousal  Primary drives: involve needs of the body such as hunger and thirst  Acquired (secondary) drives: learned through experience or conditioning, such as the need for money or social approval  Homeostasis: the tendency of the body to maintain a steady state  Need for achievement (nAch): involves a strong desire to succeed in attaining goals—not only realistic ones, but also challenging ones  Need for affiliation (nAff): the need for friendly social interactions and relationships with others  Need for power (nPow): the need to have control or influence over others  Stimulus motive: a motive that appears to be unlearned but causes an increase in stimulation, such as curiosity  Arousal theory: theory of motivation in which people are said to have an optimal (best or ideal) level of tension that they seek to maintain by increasing or decreasing stimulation ▯ Incentives: things that attract or lure people into action ▯ Incentive approaches: theories of motivation in which behavior is explained as a response to the external stimulus and its rewarding properties ▯ ▯ Describe Maslow’s humanistic approach ▯ Self-actualization: the point at which people have sufficiently satisfied the lower needs and achieved their full human potential ▯ Seldom reached ▯ Peak experiences: times in a person’s life during which self- actualization is temporarily achieved ▯ Self-determination theory (SDT): the social context of an action has an effect on the type of motivation existing for the action ▯ Intrinsic motivation: type of motivation in which a person performs an action because the act itself is rewarding or satisfying in some internal manne ▯ ▯ Define stress and stressors ▯ Stress: physical, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to events that are appraised as threatening or challenging ▯ Stressors: events that cause a stress reaction ▯ Distress: the effect of unpleasant and undesirable stressors ▯ Eustress: the effect of positive events, or the optimal amount of stress that people need to promote health and wellbeing ▯ ▯ ▯ Describe two methods for coping with stress ▯ Conflict: psychological experience of being pulled toward or drawn to two or more desires or goals, only one of which may be attained ▯ Approach–approach conflict: a person must choose between two desirable goals ▯ Avoidance–avoidance conflict: a person must choose between two undesirable goals ▯ Approach–avoidance conflict: a person must choose or not choose a goal that has both positive and negative aspects ▯ Double approach – avoidance conflict: a person must decide between two goals, each possessing both positive and negative aspects  Problem focused: rid of direct sort of stress, hw  Emotion focused: change your attitude ▯ ▯ Define emotion ▯ Emotion: the “feeling” aspect of consciousness characterized by: ▯ Certain physical arousal ▯ Certain behavior that reveals the emotion to the outside world ▯ Inner awareness of feelings ▯ The amygdala ▯ Facial expressions can vary across different cultures, but many seem to be universal. ▯ ▯ Compare and contrast the three theories of emotion: common- sense, James-Lang, and Cannon-Bard ▯ Common-sense theory of emotion: a stimulus leads to an emotion, which then leads to bodily arousal ▯ ▯ James–Lange theory of emotion: a physiological reaction leads to the labeling of an emotion ▯ ▯ Cannon–Bard theory of emotion: the physiological reaction and the emotion are assumed to occur at the same time ▯ ▯ Explain the three common approaches to emotion  Schater and Singers’ cognitive arousal theory  Cognitive arousal theory: both the physical arousal and the labeling of that arousal based on cues from the environment must occur before the emotion is experienced  Facial-feedback hypothesis  Facial expressions provide feedback to the brain concerning the emotion being expressed, which in turn causes and intensifies the emotion  Cognitive-meditational theory  A stimulus must be interpreted (appraised) by a person in order to result in a physical response and an emotional reaction  Cognitive Arousal Theory of Emotion  Both the physical arousal and the labeling of that arousal based on cues from the environment must occur before the emotion is experiences  Schachter-singer cognitive arousal theory of emotion ▯  Facial Feedback Hypothesis  The facial expressions provide feedback to the brain concerning the emotion being expressed, which in turn causes and intensifies the emotion (not that much scientific backing)  Cognitive-Meditation theory  A stimulus must be interpreted (appraised) by a person in order to result in a physical response and an emotional reaction ▯ ▯ Section 8.1 Human development is the scientific study of the changes that occur in people as they age, from conception until death. Research Designs Longitudinal design: a group of people are followed and assessed at different times as the group ages  Advantages: real age-related changes  Disadvantages: long amount of time, money and effort as well as loss of participants Cross-sectional design: several different age-groups are studied at one time  Advantages: quick, relatively inexpensive and easier to accomplice  Disadvantage: no longer compares an individual to that same individual as he or she ages. Ex. Comparing IQ scores of 30-year old to 80-year old Cross-sequential design: a group is first studies by means of a cross- sequential design but are then followed and assessed longitudinal Section 8.2 Nature: the influence of our inherited characteristics on our personality, physical growth, intellectual growth and social interactions Nurture: the influence of the environment on personality, physical growth, intellectual growth and social interactions. Behavioral genetics is a relatively new field in the investigation of the origins of behavior in which researchers try to determine how much of behavior is the result of genetic inheritance and how much is due to a person’s experiences. Most developmental psychologists agree that human development is based on the both the combination of nature and nurture Section 8.3 Chromosomes, Genes, and DNA Genetics is the science of inherited traits DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid): special molecule that contains the genetic material of an organism Gene: section of DNA having the same arrangement of chemical elements Chromosome: tightly wound strand of genetic material or DNA  Humans have a total of 46 chromosomes  23 from mom’s egg and 23 from father’s sperm  Most characteristics and determined by 22 such pairs, called autosomes  Last chromosome is the ‘sex chromosome’ which determines the sex of the child  XX = Girl and XY = Boy ▯ Dominant: gene that controls the expression of a trait ▯ Recessive: gene that only influences the expression of a trait when it is paired with an identical gene ▯ Polygenic inheritance: traits are controlled by more than one pair of genes ▯ ▯ Genetic and Chromosome problems: sometimes caused when a child inherits two recessive genes, one from each parent  Cystic fibrosis (disease of the respiratory and digestive tract)  Sickle-cell anemia (blood disorder)  Tay-Sachs disorder (neurological disorder               ▯ ▯ Disorders and diseases can also be caused by missing a chromosome pair, or having an extra one ▯ ▯ Prenatal development: ▯ Egg (also calleg ovum) + sperm = fertilization ▯ The result of fertilization is a single cell with a total of 46 chromosomes, called a zygote ▯ The zygote will then began to divide in a process called mitosis ▯ After several cell mitosis, the mass of cells becomes a baby ▯ Sometimes there is a mistake in this division process and thus twins and triplets are produced ▯ ▯ Monozygotic twins: two babies come from one (mono) fertilized egg (zygote) ▯ Dizygotic twins: two eggs are released during ovulation, so two eggs are fertilized ▯ ▯ *why twins are helpful while researching development: take two people with the same genetic making, twins, are raise them in different environment to see is development is more influenced by nature or nurture ▯ ▯ 8.4 Germinal period ▯ Germinal period: first 2 weeks after fertilization, during which the zygote moves down the uterus and begins to implant in the lining  Placenta and umbilical cord start to form  Stem cells, skin cells and heart cells also start to form ▯ Embryo: name for the developing organism from 2 weeks to 8 weeks after fertilization ▯ ▯ Embryonic period: period from 2- 8 weeks after fertilization during which the major organs and structures of the baby develops  Has some form of eyes, nose, lips, teeth, limbs and a beating heart ▯ ▯ Critical period: times during which certain environmental influences can have an impact on the development of the infant ▯ Teratogen: any factor that can cause a birth defect  Alcohol, drugs, virus, other chemicals (ex. Mercury) ▯ ▯ Fetal period: time from about 8 weeks after conception until birth of the baby. (fetus is the name of developing organism at this stage)  Organs continue to develop until fully functional  Muscles contact, ex. Mom’s feel kicking ▯ ▯ 8.5 Physical development ▯ 1. Reflexes: innate, involuntary behavior patterns. Helps the infant to survive. Linked to the nervous system ▯ 5 infant reflexes  grasping  startle  rooting  stepping  sucking ▯ ▯ 2. Sensory abilities are fairly developed but still need a little more time to be develop  touch, taste and smell are most functional  hearing still needs more time  sight/ vision is least functional ▯ ▯ 3. Motor abilities are extremely developed from birth to 2 years of age ▯ 6 motor milestones  raising head and chest  rolling over  sitting up  crawling  walking ▯ ▯ 8.6 Cognitive development ▯ Cognitive development: development of thinking, problem solving and memory ▯ Piaget’s stages of Cognitive Development ▯ ▯ Scheme: a mental concept formed through experiences with objects and evens ▯ ▯ Sensorimotor stage: first stage of cog. Development in which the infant uses its senses and motor abilities to interact with objects in the environment.  Object permanence: knowledge that object exists even when it is not in sight ▯ ▯ Preoperational stage: second stage of cog. Development in which the preschool child learns to use language as a means of exploring the world  Animism: children believe that anything that moves is alive  Egocentrism: inability to see the world though anyone else’s eyes  Concentration: tendency of a child to focus only one feature of an object while ignoring other relevant feature  Conservation: ability to understand that simple changing appearance of something doesn’t change that thing’s nature  Irreversibility: inability of child to mentally reverse an action ▯ Concrete operations stage: third stage of cog. Development in which the school-age child becomes capable of logical though process but is not yet capable of abstract thinking ▯ ▯ Formal operations stage: fourth stage of cog. Development in which the adolescent becomes capable of abstract thinking ▯ ▯ Vygotsky’s Theory of Being there: ▯ Scafolding: Process in which a more skilled learner gives help to a less skilled learner, reducing the amount of help as a less skilled learner becomes more capable  Children develop cognitively when someone else helps them by asking leading questions and providing examples of concepts ▯ Zone of proximal development (ZPD): concept of difference between what a child can do alone and what it can do with the help of a teacher Stages of Language development:  Cooing  Babbling  One word speech  Telegraphic speech  Whole sentences ▯ ▯ 8.7 Psychosocial development ▯ Temperament: the behavioral characteristics that are fairly well established at birth such as easy, difficult and slow to warm up  Easy: regular in their schedules and are adaptable to change. Easily soothed  Difficult: irregular schedules and unhappy about change. Loud, active and crabby.  Slow to warm up: less grumpy, quieter and more regular than difficult children. Slower to adapt to change than easy babies. ▯ ▯ Attachment: emotional bond between infant and primary caregiver  Secure  Avoidant  Ambivalent  Disorganized-disoriented ▯ ▯ Eirkson’s theory ▯ ▯ ▯ 8.8 Adolescence ▯ Adolescence is the period of life from about age 13 to early 20’s during which a young person is no longer physically a child but is not yet and independent, self-supporting adult ▯ Puberty: physical changes that occur in the body as sexual development reaches its peak  Primary sex characteristics  Secondary sex characteristics Cognitive development ▯ Personal fable: type of though common to adolescents in which young people believe themselves to be unique and protected from harm. “you don’t understand me, I’m different that you” and “it can’t happy to me, I’m special” ▯ ▯ Imaginary audience: type of thought common to adolescents in which young people believe that other people are just concerned about the adolescent’s thoughts and characteristics as they themselves are. “center of the world” ▯ ▯ Moral development ▯ Understanding “right” from “wrong”  Pre-conventional morality: first level of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development in which the child’s behavior is governed by the consequences of the behavior. Right = rewarded, wrong


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