Physics Notes - Week 11
Physics Notes - Week 11 PHYS2001
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Grace Lillie on Saturday April 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHYS2001 at University of Cincinnati taught by Alexandru Maries in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see College Physics 1 (Calculus-based) in Physics 2 at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 04/02/16
Chapter 14 – Fluid Mechanics fluid—a collection of molecules that are randomly arranged and held together by weak cohesive forces and by forces exerted by the walls of a container. Includes liquids and gases 14.1 – Pressure - The force exerted by a static fluid on an object is always perpendicular to the surfaces of the object F - pressure—a scalar quantity: P= A - pascal—SI unit of pressure: 1 Pa = 1 N/m 2 14.2 – Variation of Pressure with Depth - water pressure increases with depth; atmospheric pressure decreases with height - density—mass per unit volume P=P +ρgh 0 pressure varies with depth, h. If the container is open, P is atmospheric pressure: P = 1.00 atm = 5 0 0 1.013*10 Pa *Pressure at a given depth is the same, regardless of the shape of the container Pascal’s Law—a change in the pressure applied to a fluid is transmitted undiminished to every point of the fluid and to the walls of the container (see hydraulic press in notes) 14.3 – Pressure Measurements barometric pressure is the current local pressure of the atmosphere A barometer uses a tube of mercury closed at one end to measure pressure: 1 atm = 0.760 m An open-tube manometer uses a U-shaped tube and differences in height to measure absolute pressure (the pressure P) and gauge pressure (the difference P- P ) 0 14.4 – Buoyant Forces and Archimedes’s Principle buoyant force—the upward force exerted by a fluid on any immersed object Archimedes’s Principle—the magnitude of the buoyant force on an object always equals the weight of the fluid displaced by the object B=ρ gV fluid disp buoyant force. **Buoyant force is exerted by the fluid and doesn’t depend on the properties of the object except its volume Totally Submerged Object: - the volume of the displaced fluid equals the volume of the object, so: B=ρ fluid obj B−F =gρ fluid)obj obj - the net force is: - so, if the density of the object is less than the fluid, the object accelerates upward; if the density of the object is greater, the object sinks; if the densities are the same, the net force is zero and the object remains in equilibrium - **the direction of motion of the object is determined only by the densities Floating Object: - ρobj fluidand the object is in static equilibrium, floating on the fluid (partially submerged) - the volume of the displaced fluid is the volume of the part submerged, so: B=ρ fluid disp V disp ρobj - = V obj ρ fluid 14.5 – Fluid Dynamics flow can be characterized as one of two types: - steady or laminar – each particle follows a smooth path and the paths never cross - turbulent – irregular flow above a certain critical speed viscosity—describes the degree of internal friction ideal fluid flow: - nonviscous—internal friction is neglected so there is no viscous force - steady—(laminar) all particles passing through a point have the same velocity - incompressible—density is constant - irrotational—no angular momentum about any point streamline—the path taken by a fluid particle under steady flow; velocity is tangent to the streamline A1v1=A v2 2onstant equation of continuity for fluids 14.6 – Bernoulli’s Equation 1 P+ ρv +ρgy=constant Bernoulli’s equation – the pressure of a fluid 2 decreases as the speed and/or elevation increase 14.7 – Other Applications of Fluid Dynamics lift—the vertical component of the force the airstream exerts on a wing - depends on factors including speed, area, curvature, angle: the curvature causes lower pressure above the wing and the pressure different assists with lift; too big an angle between the wing and the horizontal increases turbulent flow above the wing and reduces lift - lift is also influenced by shape, orientation, spinning motion, texture of an object drag—the horizontal component of the force the airstream exerts on a wing
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