Chapters 8 and 9 Lecture Notes
Chapters 8 and 9 Lecture Notes Art H 111
Popular in Ancient through medieval art
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Date Created: 04/02/16
Chapters 8 and 9 Lecture Notes Islamic Lecture Dome of The Rock Located in Jerusalem on a site sacred to Islam Oldest existing Muslim monument Meaningful site for Jews and Christians as well Draws from the plan of a centrally planned martieria of early Christian and byzantine periods Martierium- a church or shrine built over a holy place The rock projects upward as part of the central dome space Has a double ambulatory The central dome space is simple An arcade of piers alternating with sets of three columns separates the central dome space from the inner ambulatory It does not have a sanctuary or an apse The focal point is the rock at the center Ornate exterior Gilded bronze dome and the rest of the exterior walls are covered in ceramic tiles of turquoise, blue, white and yellow The tiles are 16 century Originally the exterior was covered in mosaic The marble veneer on the lowest portion is original, but frequently restored Piers and columns are spolia from other monuments in Jerusalem Interior mosaics are mainly coiling plants Muslims avoid figures in their works of art Dark except for the central domed space, the most sacred area in the building Palace at Mshatta It was abandoned before construction was finished when the Kalieff was assassinated A hunting palace The main feature is the façade of the main portal, which is now in Berlin Guarded by 25 towers The towers of the portal are shaped like half octagon Inside was an audience hall and a masque Entrance Portal o Decorated with a sculpted frieze o Also features a zig zag pattern and rosettes o Relief was carved from a reddish brown limestone o Used drill work to create contrasts of light and dark o Shows two animals drinking from an urn with a tree of life growing out of it- it is an ancient Persian motif Great Mosque in Cordoba th Significant expansions took place up until the 13 century In the center is the cathedral of Cordoba Had a hypostyle plan consisted of a rectangular prayer hall and enclosed courtyard The prayer hall has a system of columns supporting double arching arcades of piers and arches is an unusual treatment that had the practical advantage of providing greater height within the hall Muhrab- a niche set into the outer wall of a masque to indicate the direction of mecca o Focal point of the interior of the masque o New kalieff and his son made the muhrab and three bays preceding it o The dome of one of the bays is decorated with mosaics of vegetables and had inscriptions from the Quran Calligraphy The words themselves become works of art Found on buildings, manuscripts, ceramics and textiles Calligraphic inscriptions could come from the Quran or secular Typically written in extremely large font against a white background Red marks are guides for pronunciation Written in Arabic or Kufic Qoufic script was also used on ceramic ware called Sommercon Ware o Characterized by a ground of white slip with black inscriptions o Started with red clay that was white washed and engraved later to be painted on o Centeral motif is based off of the yin and yan pattern Islamic Luxury Item Was brought to the west A piece of silk that was produced in a workshop in Iran It is a fragment from a saddle cloth made for the commander Abu Monsor Bactigin in the late 10 century The saddle cloth was brought to the west by a crusader It was later used to wrap up relics of a French abby’s patron saint Then given to the louvre museum in Paris A saddle cloth like this one was a status symbol Covered in animal and geometric design o Camels and elephants o Objects depicted mirror each other Palintine (Palace Chapel) in Palermo Served as the royal chapel for the Sicilian Norman sovereignty King Roger II commissioned it It was consecrated to St. Peter Shows a convergence of Byzantine and Muslim style art Adheres to a typical basilica plan o Has a central nave flanked by two aisles separated by colonnades that support six shallow pointed arches three on each side o A byzantine style dome on scquniches covers the crossing o The ceiling in the nave is covered in an Islamic timber macarnes ceiling o Muqarnas- are honeycomb like niches that are used in combination to form complex patterns and shapes often used for arches and vaults Decorated throughout with byzantine mosaics The floor and walls are covered in an Italian medieval style marble inlay called cosmani Chamber of King Roger Covered in secular mosaics executed by byzantine artists Depict garden scenes on a gold background It includes Islamic motifs (paired animals mirroring each other, the paradise garden, and the geometric ornament on the apex of the vault) Hiberno Saxon Viking Lecture Eagle Brooch Would have been worn on a shoulder It is one of a pair with the other eagle facing in the opposite direction Made of sheath gold over bronze inlaid with garnets, amethysts, and colored glass Pendants originally hung from the loops at the bottom The eagle was a popular symbol during the migration period adopted from roman imperial insignia o Particularly loved by the Visigoth’s Lombard Cross Has a byzantine form with equal length cross arms In the center is a repousse relief figure of the enthroned Christ enclosed in a mendorla Has a collection of antique engraved gems, camios and the Roman group portrait Gumermark’s Brooch from Denmark Made by people who were outside the Roman sphere of influence Also called a Fibula Would have been used to fasten an item of clothing Decorated in animal style- depicting both real and imaginary animals o Most are depicted in long chains biting another animal The bottom of the brooch has long tongues of crouching dogs form decorative spirals Sutton-Hoo ship burial Excavated by Basil Brown in grassy mounds Most of the burials were robbed The largest mound was mound 1 Consisted of a ship and in the center was a burial chamber The burial chamber was originally covered in textiles The dead man was placed down surrounded by his possessions No trace of a body was found at the site Soil samples tell us that their was a body in the burial chamber but it had decayed due to the highly acidic conditions of the bottom of the ship The room also contained a purse with a jeweled lid, but the leather had decayed over time The coins found give scholars a better idea of when the burial might have taken place There was also a sword, spear, shield, chainmail, a helmet and an object that might be a scepter Purse Lid from the Sutton-Hoo ship Was meant to cover a leather pouch containing gold coins Hung by three hinged clasps at the waist belt The lid is decayed but it was probably made of whale bone ivory 7 gold-garnet closenai and milifurai glass plaques were set into the whale bone ivory o They include paired images of a man standing between two wolves and an eagle swooping down on its prey o The meaning of the imagery is unknown Geometric patterns are on the upper plaques The interlaced designs at the center top are long legged biting animals that are Germanic in style Book of Duro Manuscript A Hiberno-Saxon gospel book containing full page illustrations with an image of an evangelist before each one of the gospels Carpet page- an illustration consisting purely of decoration Enormous decorated letters were put at the start of each gospel page called the enchipped (means the beginning) Earliest surviving North Umbrion manuscript incorporating both Irish and Germanic elements into its illustrations Image of St. Matthew (evangelist) has been simplified to a head and legs placed onto a bell like shape decorated with colorful geometric patterns o Surrounded by interlace Has water damage due to the belief that it had special powers o The ink would not run even when submerged in water Thought to be created by St. Columbus Book of Kells One of the most famous Hiberno-Saxon gospel books Pages are covered in ornament with a variety of decoration Show the Cyro Ioda- first letters of Christ’s name A detail shows two mice eating at the Eucharistic host with two cats who have come to defend the host o Symbolizes the struggle between good and evil o Also shows the problems monasteries had with mice eating the hosts South Cross at Ahenny One of two Irish high crosses on the site It was tradition with the Irish to set up a wooden cross as a symbol of Christianity in important places th Starting in the 8 century the crosses were carved out of stone The ring at the center might be symbolic like a halo or a support for the projecting arms Uses the same ornamentation that was used in metal work Oseberg Ship Burial The Vikings believed in sending their honored dead to the afterlife with graves that were well equipped Along coastlines and water ways boats were a part of the burial Excavated in 1904 and was heavily damaged At the center was a house shaped burial chamber filled with goods The goods included a wooden cart, 4 wooden sleds, a tent, woven textiles and the skeletons of 10 horses The grave was looted long before excavation The ship was later restored Buried a queen after being used for over 50 years Ships were covered with carved decoration of animal interlace in the gripping beast style Rune Stones at Denmark Originally brightly painted The smaller stone on the left is older than the other stone o It has a short inscription from King Gorom o It is the oldest inscription from a Danish king and the earliest known document of any type in Denmark to mention the name of the country o The stone was erected in honor of Gorom’s dead wife Thera o It originally marked her grave, but was later moved Stone on the right is the larger and younger stone o Erected by Gorom’s son Herald Bluetooth o It is a three sided stone with decorated relief images on two sides o Has runic inscriptions on all three sides o Still in its original place were it was erected o Tells of his accomplishments of uniting Denmark, conquering Norway and converting the Danes to Christianity o On one side is an image of the crucified Christ entangled in a cross shaped design of twining interlace It shows Christian content intertwined with Viking and Germanic designs o On the third side is a beast in the form of a lion shown fighting a serpent in twining interlace Stave Church in Ornez Due to the abundance of timber most churches in Norway were built of wood 28 surviving stave churches today The stave church in Ornez is the oldest and most elaborately decorated Three churches were built on the site The decorated areas on the exterior wall are from the first church Carved Portal at Ornez Carved showing animal interlace It is a large quadruped animal struggling with a snake o Thought to be a representation of the struggle between good and evil o The beast is like a deer with a long neck This style of interlace is called the ornez style o It is characterized by long elegant shapes Borgund Stave Church And Stave Construction Made of entirely timber but placed on a stone foundation preventing contact from the timbers and damp ground Staves- the major uprights on the interior that form the framework of the nave At the top of each stave is a carved head Pincer beams on either side of the nave hold the staves firmly in place Diagonal cross beams named after St. Andrew (who was crucified on an X shaped cross) provide additional support The external wall planks were set upright inside a frame that enclosed them at the top and bottom Stave churches did not have many windows Light entered only through small round openings that resemble port holes The church never underwent any major renovations and most of its timbers are original The church was dedicated to saint Andrew Mozarabic and Carolingian Lecture Mozarabic Manuscripts Made by Betus Depicted the book of revelation He arranged his commentary into 12 books in which short passages from the book of revelation were followed by interpretations of those passages as Christian allegories His manuscripts are characterized by framed miniatures illustrating over 60 passages from the text of revelation Betus of Baicondus Manuscript Named after the man who painted it Depicts revelations passage 13 which describes two infertile beasts that are worshiped as false gods o One is a dragon o The other is a composite beast with 7 horned heads, a body like a tiger and feet like a bear The worshipers were rendered in bold colors on a bright background No attempt at creating a three dimensional space Colifan Page The earliest known Betus manuscript Produced at the monastery of San Salvador It is a page at the end of a manuscript that gives information about its production This page features a representation of the monastery of San Salvador o Consisting of an elaborately patterned bell tower with horseshoe arches and an adjacent building depicting the scribe and monk o In the room next to them is a helper making pages o At the bottom of the tower there is a monk pulling the ropes for the bells while other men climb to the top Bird and Serpent Manuscript Collaborated on this piece with a woman named Inda who called herself a painter and servant of god Shows combat between a bird and a serpent and has an accompanying text The page and it commentary reflect a medieval intellectual tradition in which everything was seen to have an allegorical connection with Christianity and the New Testament Equestrian Bronze Statuette of a Carolingian Ruler Represents Charlemagne or his son Louis the Pius Represents his succession to Constantine as the next Christian Roman Emperor Shows the ruler dressed in the garb of a Frankish royal with neatly trimmed hair, no beard and a mustache Controls the horse with little to no effort The orb in his left hand is a symbol of his rule Silver Coin of Charlemagne in Profile In circulation during the end of his reign The inscription read Karolus Imperator Augustus Karolus is the Latin form of Charlemagne’s name Imperator means emperor Augustus is an honorific title often applied to emperors meaning venerable Charlemagne wears a Loral reef and wears Roman garments Okan Shows Charlemagne’s audience hall and Palatine Chapel with a fore quart The audience hall and chapel were linked by a covered walkway that allowed Charlemagne private access between the two places At the center of the walkway was Charlemagne’s residence The audience hall today is now Okan’s city hall and received gothic renovations The Palatine Chapel is now the Cathedral of Okan The walkway survives only in portions The fore quart also survives only in portions Palatine Chapel at Okan Charlemagne’s architect Odo of Metz incorporated Roman and Byzantine spolia into his design The chapel is 16 sided and the central space is octagonal Made to look like San Vitale o Both had second story galleries o The gallery here was a private section for Charlemagne where he could participate in the mass without mingling with the people below Decorations emphasize the octagonal shape of the central domed space The walls were decorated with thin veneers of colored marbles The columns on the gallery level are granite, marble and porphyry that were reused from Roman and Byzantine monuments Westwork- entrance that is a two storied façade o It served as an auxiliary building for Charlemagne o On the ground floor it was just an entrance to the church for the public o Above it contained a throne room that opened up onto the gallery level for his participation in the mass o It also had a balcony were he could make speeches to his citizens His throne is situated on the west side of the gallery directly across from apse This was the coronation throne of the holy roman empire o Several kings and queens after him were crowned here, but Charlemagne was crowned in Rome The throne is now seen as a relic of Charlemagne since he was venerated as a saint Charlemagne Was responsible for creating institutions in his empire that had not existed since the fall of Rome There were reliable roads and a postage system He was a supporter of learning and the arts Monasteries became the center for learning and art production Senates took place after his death to reform the monasteries St. Gall Plan Life revolved around the cloister- a place resembling a parastyle garden in a Roman house, around which the church and living spaces for the monks were placed Provides for every possible aspect of life in a large Benedictine monastery o From the animals on the farm, the gardens, kitchen, brewery, the education of novices and the care of sick monks Visitors and the poor were also provided for There are places set aside for the production of ceramics, metalwork and manuscripts The dormitory for the monks was adjacent to the transept of the church There was a large westwork on the church with two towers and its own choir Shows a wealth of detail The eastern end of the church includes a vaulted crypt beneath the sanctuary and stairs that lead to the elevated sanctuary o All of the alters are indicated according to their dedication The monastery was never rebuilt to this exact plan Lorsch Gatehouse An example of early medieval architecture under the Carolingians It combines Roman inspired architectural forms with patterns that recall Germanic metalwork Has a triple arch entrance The capitals of the engaged columns and pilasters imitate the Roman Orders Manuscripts produced in Carolingian Scriptoria Each scriptorium had its own style Evangelist portraits generally follow the same conventions showing a seated evangelist in front of a small writing desk being inspired by a representation of his evangelist symbol Goldisal Gospel Lectionary Depicting Mark This was commissioned by Charlemagne and his wife Hildegard It was finished before Hildegard’s death The manuscript was dyed purple and the lettering is done in gold and silver Shows Mark identifiable by his lion symbol and the inscription behind his back The writing desk and chair were drawn at an angle receding into space The frame was painted with patterns that imitate foliage and others that suggest colored marble St. Matthew from the Coronation Gospels According to tradition these gospels were buried with Charlemagne and recovered by the emperor Otto III in the year 1000 The coronation gospels were used in coronation ceremonies of many German emperors The image was made by a Byzantine artist Shows modeled drapery and flesh tones Shows St. Mark as very composed St. Matthew from the Ebo Gospels Made for the archbishop Ebo of Rouns Executed in a distinctive energetic style Both images of this evangelist show him seated with an inkwell in his left hand and a feather pen in his right Doesn’t look composed made in a quick sketch like linear style This image shows his symbol at the top right of the page- an angel holding a scroll Lindau Gospel Cover Repousse images on the cover are executed in a style close to the Ebo Gospel The subject is the crucifixion with Christ depicted as alive and triumphant on the cross His eyes are open and his body does not sag Although he is triumphant the figures around him depict emotional torment Above the arms of the cross the angels are contorted in agony Above Christ’s head on the cross the sun and moon hide their faces in recognition of Christ’s suffering and the importance of this event Below the cross arms are the mourning Mary, John, Mary Magdalian and Mary Cliaphus who twist and turn throwing up their arms and tearing off their garments in sorrow All around the crucifixion and frame of the book cover are cabochons, pearls, gold granulation and filigree The clusters of jewels between the cross arms in the border are raised up on tiny cast lion’s feet Ottonian Lecture Magdeburg Antependium 17 ivory panels used to make up an alter frontal (antependium) An alter front is made up of a grid work of images to decorate the front of an alter At some point the Magdeburg antependium was broken up into its component parts and the ivories were scattered all over the place o Some were used to decorate other objects Each panel is set within a single scene surrounded by a wide square border Every panel has a background of either floral or geometric openwork behind the main scene Most scenes contain few figures and little indication to architecture or landscapes The overall subject is the life of Christ including the annunciation of the virgin and the visitation One of the panels is now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York 5 inches high with a wide square border and openwork background The scene shows Christ enthroned in the center, he has a cross halo He sits on a circle that is framed by a reef and rests his feet on a billowing arc o The arc is a reference to the sky god in Roman art The setting that the artist placed Christ in makes him the divine ruler of the universe On either side Christ is flanked by saints o Saint Peter is on Christ’s left our right is identifiable because he carries keys o On Christ’s right our left Morris an African saint and patron saint of the church in Magdeburg rests his arm around Otto I presenting him to Christ o Otto I is the shortest (hierarchical scale) and identifiable by his crown holding out a model of his church The panel is meant to glorify Otto I Church of St. Cyriakus at Gernrode Was a basilica planned church The apse on the west side is not original, it replaced a portal that was flanked by two towers forming a westwork o Scholars believe that towers on westworks could have been for defensive reasons Funding and land was given by a local noble Earl Gero who was also promised protection for his church and attached convent from Otto I, Otto II and the Pope o This made the abbey answerable only by the Pope meaning that local landowners including himself could not impose taxes He went to Rome to secure relics of St. Cyriakus so that his alter could be consecrated o It is believed that he had thieves take the relics from the catacombs The door on the west side was an entrance for the nuns The towers have thin pilasters and a blind arcade on the exterior Blind arcade- called this due to the fact that the arches do not open onto anything, instead are only applied to a wall surface The interior has an alternation of support between columns and piers The piers divide up the nave into two square volumes that are the same size as the crossing of the church Additional piers are on the gallery level dividing one arcade from the other The choir in the east is elevated and reached by a set of stairs due to the large crypt beneath the raised apse Earl Gero appointed his widowed daughter in law Hathaway as its first Abbess Cross Commissioned by Matilda one of Otto I’s granddaughters At the center is a crucified Christ done in repousse with a coiled snake at his feet representing the evil defeated by Christ’s sacrifice The arms of the cross are decorated with filigree, precious stones and pearls At the foot of the cross is an enamel plaque done in the cloisonné technique used by Byzantine artists Cross Plaque Does not show any saints or Christ It shows Matilda and her younger brother Otto holding a staff that represents the cross the plaque is placed on Scholars believed that this cross was made as a memorial for her brother who died of malaria at the age of 28 The inscription above Matilda identifies her as an abbess, but she is dressed like a member of the nobility Otto’s cloak is made of the same material as Matilda emphasizing that they are family members The inscription above his head gives his name and title which is a duke Matilda was in charge of church construction and production of manuscripts Bernward of Hildesheim He was an important patron of the arts and an artist himself He learned how to make manuscripts and metalwork during his education No works of art that can be identified as made by Berward Many inscriptions name him as either patron or artist Manuscript Shows Bernward celebrating mass inside of a well decorated church He holds a codex with a gold chalice and paten are on the alter Partially Glided Silver Crucifix Another work accredited to Bernward Niello- a dark alloy of sulfur, copper, silver and sometimes lead Niello was applied to the engraved areas making inscriptions more visible Cast bronze doors Originally made for the church of St. Michael in Hildeshiem A work associated with Bernward The doors are covered with scenes from the old and new testaments Left door shows 8 scenes from Genesis (top to bottom) beginning with Adam and end with Cane murdering Able Right door shows 8 scenes from the gospels (bottom to top) beginning with the annunciation ending with Christ’s ascension into heaven The scenes are set up as problems and solutions The doors were intended to educate the viewer Doors were cast in one piece and used the lost wax technique The scene of god confronting adam and eve is one of the most effective Bronze Columns Image associated with Bernward Now stands in the transept in the cathedral in Hildesheim Meant to hold the candle that is lit at Easter A Christian victory monument The band runs from the base to the top depicts the life of Christ beginning with the baptism and ending with Christ entering Jerusalem before the crucifixion 34 scenes The column itself symbolizes the suffering of Christ Gero Crucifix A gilded cross with a corpus made of oak that was painted and gilded Corpus- a representation of the body of Christ Christ is the image of pain and suffering Originally suspended over an alter in the Cologne Cathedral o The side with the corpus faced toward the nave and the back faced the choir On the back of the head of the corpus is where a consecrated host could be placed Ottonain Illuminated Manuscripts Lothar Gospels Manuscript Shows Otto III enthroned against a gold background and is enclosed in a mandorla Made at a monastic scriptorium It is the dedication page to the manuscript He holds an orb with represents his earthly power His throne is being held up by Tellus the Roman earth goddess Above Otto’s head is a representation of the hand of god reaching down to place a crown on his head Around Otto’s body are four beasts representing the 4 evangelists At the foot of his throne are two male figures representing the kingdoms under Otto’s rule At the bottom of the page are 4 figures o 2 are soldiers with shields and 2 are bishops o They represent Otto’s control of both worldly and secular power It is an image of propaganda with Otto as a Christ like figure The Gospels of Otto III Another propaganda image that spans 2 pages Made in the same scriptorium as the Lothar Gospels Shows Otto III enthroned flanked by bishops and military receiving tribute He carries an orb to show is earthly power The page next to Otto shows 4 barefoot women bringing tribute o They are personifications of the 4 corners of Otto’s empire Otto is the largest figure The Gospels of Otto III – Christ page Depicts Christ washing his disciples feet Peter is seated on the left protesting because he is unworthy Artist used gold leaf in the area behind Christ transforming the space into a heavenly realm o Also shows that Peter is unworthy to be inside of the heavenly space surrounding Christ
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