Week 9: The Impact of Implicit Racism
Week 9: The Impact of Implicit Racism GVPT289O
Popular in Racial and Ethnic Politics in the Obama Era
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Date Created: 12/12/15
GVPT2890 R 102715 Page 1 of 2 Lecture 14 The impact of Implicit Racism eading Notes Our findings suggest that Mr Obama was not elected because of an absence of prejudice but despite its continuing presence Even after controlling for explicit prejudice the independent relation between implicit prejudice and unwillingness to vote for Obama suggests that even explicitly rejected attitudes can influence important political decisions We found that implicit and explicit prejudice predicted voting behavior in subtly different ways Being higher in explicit prejudice made Americans less likely to vote for Obama and more likely to vote for McCain The unique effects of implicit prejudice were more subtle Americans higher in implicit prejudice were less likely to vote for Obama but not more likely to vote for McCain Explicit prejudice often predicts overt behaviors such as the content of verbal responses whereas implicit prejudice predicts more subtle nonverbal behaviors such as eye contact and physical distance Whereas explicit prejudice was associated with actively voting for McCain rather than Obama implicit prejudice was uniquely associated with simply not voting or voting for a third party nominee Lecture Notes Problems with selfreported survey measures Researchers have found that it s hard to get people to respond accurately to survey questions especially about race Bogus Pipeline Method reduces social desirability bias This method was designed with the purpose of convincing respondents often done with the aid of a device presented as a lie detector that researchers could determine whether they were telling the truth This was was used to gauge participants true attitude For example Lowe and his colleagues 1986 examined whether the bogus pipeline method increases selfreports of alcohol consumption among pregnant women The results show that subjects in the bogus pipeline group report 13 more alcohol consumption than the control group Researchers developed implicit measures with the purpose of minimizing the problems with explicit selfreports of attitudes The development of implicit racism measures grew out of concern about respondents regulating responses to selfreport measures of racism On explicit measures of racism respondents can consciously avoid appearing racially biased by intentionally selfmonitoring their responses providing the most politically correct answer Implicit racial measures reduce the likelihood that respondents can hide undesirable responses Implicit racism This form of prejudice is racial associations that come to mind unintentionally whose influence on opinions and action may not be consciously recognize and controllable Scholars argue that this bias is shaped by unconscious associations stores in longterm memory Our explicit attitudes are shaped more by recent memory What impacts implicit attitudes is our first experience with the object In fact Devine 1989 finds that many people high and low prejudice individuals hold negative evaluations of blacks that are outside of their conscious awareness When race is GVPT2890 102715 Page 2 of 2 consciously made salient however she finds that low prejudice people denounce the negative stereotype and express nonprejudiced views while highprejudice people do not The Payne et al study examined whether implicit and explicit racial prejudice predicted voting behavior in the 2008 presidential election The study uses the Affect Misattribution Procedure AMP to measure implicit prejudice Participants are instructed to rate whether they perceive various abstract patterns such as Chinese characters as pleasant or unpleasant Prior to the Chinese character another object appears a black man or white man Participants are instructed to disregard this object Respondents are instructed to judge whether each Chinese character is pleasant or unpleasant Across the study implicit antiblack attitudes drove support for McCain more likely to vote against Obama Summary of Findings Racial prejudice played a significant role in 2008 presidential election Explicit racial prejudice was strongly related with voting for MCCain and not for Obama Implicit racial prejudice had an independent effect on voting for Obama not McCain Thus Americans higher in implicit racial prejudice were less likely to vote for Obama but not more likely to vote for McCain Instead they are more likely to vote for a third party or don t vote at all GVPT2890 R C 102915 Page 1 of 2 Lecture 15 The Impact of Implicit Racism eading Notes For White respondents symbolic racism is by far the strongest predictor as it is significantly correlated with every dependent variable in the analysis For Black respondents Black affect predicts questions related to emotions toward Obama while symbolic racism predicts the one policyrelated variable For Latinos implicit racial attitudes predict all four dependent variables while symbolic racism predicts three While the effects of racism on Black and Latino voters are less clear our analyses show that racial prejudice is not inconsequential for these groups Among the Black sample affect toward African Americans as a group predicted two measures of affectemotion toward Barack Obama Black respondents who reported feeling colder toward Blacks as a group then also felt less positive about Obama Also symbolic racism was a significant predictor of our policyrelated dependent variable showing that African Americans high in symbolic racism express more negative attitudes toward government aid to Blacks and affirmative action These are all measures that are scored for Blacks in exactly the same manner as they are scored for Whites that is generally showing preference for Whites over Blacks Implicit prejudice tends to be a stronger predictor of subtle nonverbal behaviors like eye contact than conscious behaviors like answering a survey question or making a vote choice lass Notes Study asked if Blacks could be prejudiced against themselves Ditonto and her colleagues examine whether racism impacted people s racial opinions during the 2008 presidential election They also investigate which form of racism implicit or explicit has the greatest influence on racial opinions They also examine the effect racism has on racial opinions among groups such as Latinos and African Americans Measures of Racial Prejudice To measure implicit racism the study uses the Affect Misattribution Procedure AMP To measure explicit racism the study uses antiblack effect negative racial stereotypes and symbolic racism racial resentment Outcome Variables Negative attitudes toward a Black president in general Feeling difference between McCain and Obama Emotions felt towards Obama Racial policy opinions Predictions Racial bias implicit and explicit will play a strong role in determining Whites attitudes toward a Black president in general Obama and racial policies They also predict symbolic racism will be the strongest predictor of racial opinions They don t have clear predictions about the role of racial prejudice among Latinos One prediction could be that racial bias explicit and implicit explains opposition to Obama and racial policies Another prediction could be that racial bias has no effect on their opinions toward race WhitesAsians competition MinoritiesWhite competition BlackLatino competition GVPT2890 102915 Page 2 of 2 Explicit antiblack attitudes shouldn t be a stronger predictor of African Americans attitudes toward Obama and racial policies They contend implicit racial bias might be a strong predictor of African Americans opinions toward Obama and racial policies System Justification Theory It is a theory that people have a widespread impulse to justify the existing social order This psychological process could lead disadvantaged groups to internalized feelings of inferiority and express favoritism toward higher status groups Research also shows that this process can occur at an unconscious level Based on system justification theory implicit racial bias might predict African Americans opposition to a Black president in general Obama and racial policies Summary of Findings For Whites symbolic racism is the strongest and most consistent predictor of racial opinions lmplicit racism only explains negative views towards a Black president in general For Blacks antiblack affect and symbolic racism matter in predicting their racial policy opinions But implicit racism has no effect For Latinos implicit racism predicts all four racial opinions Explicit racism matters as well but not as consistent as implicit racism
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