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Biol 110- Lecture Notes Week of 11/17

by: Abby Shepherd

Biol 110- Lecture Notes Week of 11/17 BIOL110

Marketplace > Purdue University > Biology > BIOL110 > Biol 110 Lecture Notes Week of 11 17
Abby Shepherd
GPA 3.88
General Biology
Dr. Anderson

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About this Document

Lecture notes from the week of 11/17. There was no actual lecture on 11/17 due to the exam, so these notes are only from 11/19. They include everything from the powerpoint plus A LOT of added bulle...
General Biology
Dr. Anderson
Class Notes
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abby Shepherd on Saturday December 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL110 at Purdue University taught by Dr. Anderson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at Purdue University.


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Date Created: 12/12/15
Conservation Biology Levels of Biodiversity Genetic diversity genes contained within an individual within a population and between populations of same species 0 High genetic diversity makes a species more likely to be able to adapt to environmental change Makes adaptation to environmental change possible Decrease means species is less likely to be able to adapt Example cats have many different breeds genetic diversity but are all the same species Species diversity the different species in eco system or bio sphere o Endangered species in danger of extinction throughout all or a signi cant portion of its range 0 Threatened species considered likely to become endangered in the near future 0 12 of bird species 0 21 of mammal species 0 Extinct species never to be found again can be locally or globally extinct o Extirpated gone from a local area but not from the planet Ecosystem diversity different ecosystems in the biosphere Eco system services 0 Why should we care about ecosystems and biodiversity loss Reasons 0 Biophilia our sense of connection to nature and all life 0 Edward Wilson coined this term 0 Term that cannot be quotmeasuredquot 0 Religious belief and moral argument that other species are entitled to life 0 Concern for future human generations Generations of the future would not have a nice earth to live on o Ecosystem services things that ecosystems do quotfor freequot that bene t us 0 Examples Can lter toxins from water a place for sh to live water to drink Examples Produce food Provide water lter pollutants from water Purify air Reduce ooding Remove carbon from atmosphere Decompose wastes Dampen effects of extreme weather Pollinate plants 0 0 Provide medicines Create preserve soil Total economic value Chart Direct use value resources directly used water sh etc Indirect use value resources indirectly used regulating services Option value our future possible use leaving our options open Bequest value future generations possible use Existence value right of existence other living things have a right to exist Threats to biodiversity Habitat loss species lose the area in which they evolved and live 0 usually caused by human activity 0 Agriculture 0 Urban development Forestry 0 Mining Pollution Climate change 0 greatest threat to biodiversity 0 Ice in the artic is melting at a higher rate than ever before 0 Species need to quickly adapt to the habitat loss or they go extinct Introduced species species brought by human activity to an area in which they did not evolve 0 Can be intentional or unintentional o Often better competitor This is because of not being affected by the local biological controls Not affected by local biological controls pests and parasites Often very dif cult to eradicate once established Only called invasive species if it becomes a problem Example zebra mussels in Great Lakes disrupt freshwater ecosystems damage manmage structures Overharvesting killing so many individuals of a population that it threatnes the populations survival 0000 o Organisms might be harvested for food jewelry medicine decoration superstition misunderstanding Turtles were harvested for jewelry Elephants and rhinos killed just for their tusks Gorillas killed for their heads and hands Rattlesnakes killed so they would not be bitten due to their fear of snakes 0 K selective species and those with restricted habitats especially vulnerable Do not breed very often and do not produce many offspring when they do 0 Species threatened by this 0 African elephants 0 American bison Black rhinoceros 0 Species we drove to extinction this way 0 Passenger pigeon There used to be so many that they would block the sun when a ock ew by They were killed for their feathers or to eat Caspian tiger Felt threatened by them 0 Global change accelerated change in global climate atmospheric chemistry or ecosystems resulting from human activity 0 Acid precipitation If a type of tree is very likely to be ruined by acid rain then it could more easily go extinct due to the change in atmospheric chemistry 0 Water pollution 0 Climate change 0 Amount of species going extinct is much higher than before Conservation 0 Small populations are especially vulnerable to factors that threaten biodiversity Small population approach study processes that cause extinction once population size is reduced 0 Extinction vortex once populations size is reduced factors keep decreasing it until no survivors 0 genetic variation is important 0 Northern elephant seals hunted to a small amount but then the populations bounced back 0 Avoided extinction vortex due to not suffering from inbreeding 0 Minimum viable population size MVP minimal population size at which a species is able to sustain its numbers 0 Species speci c 0 In uenced by environment 0 Effective population size measures breeding potential because some individuals in population don39t breed 0 Gives more accurate information about population39s chances of survival 0 Conservation goal maintain effective population size above MVP Example Indiana bat is a threatened species due to habitat loss or quotwhite nose syndromequot Declining population approach study of threatened and endangered populations that are declining even if population size is above MVP o This approach focuses on environmental factors that cause decline in the rst place 0 Examples decline of redcockaded woodpecker and conservation plan 0 Lives in pine forests Picks the bark around their nest so the sap keeps snakes away Ecosystems actually need res to keep a stable ecosystem Landscape and bio diversity 0 Habitat fragmentation breaking once continuous habitat into smaller unconnected pieces 0 This increases edge habitat Habitat edges boundaries between ecosystems o More edge means less habitat for species who live in centers and more danger to them from predators and parasites 0 Example wood thrush only nests in the centers of habitats so more edges is bad for them Cowbirds like edge habitats and create problems for wood thrushes due to habitat fragmentation more room for cowbirds and less for wood thrush Because the quotcorequot of a habitat is very close to the edge due to habitat fragmentation the cowbirds are invading the wood thrushes o Nest parasitism laying their eggs in another bird39s nests leaving the eggs to be taken care of by another bird Cowbird chicks can hatch and be much bigger than the other bird example warblers and take over the nest 0 Habitat corridors habitat paths that connect fragments provide bene ts for breeding dispersal 0 Example habitats can be connected over a highway so animals can go between habitats without threat of being run over 0 Wild life overpasses Protected areas Biodiversity hotspots relatively small area with numerous endemic not found anywhere else on the planetspecies and large number of threatened and endangered species 0 these are good choices for protected areas but can be dif cult to identify because the biodiversity of that area depends on which species you are talking about 0 The quothottestquot hotspots are only 15 of earth39s surface but contain more than 13 of all species of plants amphibians reptiles birds and mammals Nature reserves used to be set aside in an attempt to keep them unchanged forever we now understand the importance of intermediate disturbance 0 Important questions are numerous small reserves better than few large reserves Not really 0 Fewer very large reserves is actually better 0 Example for grizzly population to stay above MVP Yellowstone national park would need to greatly increase in size o In some cases a little disturbance is good to stay a healthy ecosystem Zoned reserves protected areas with a core of relatively undisturbed habitat surrounded by areas that have been altered by human activity and may be used for limited economic purposes can only slightly be altered for economic bene t 0 Also known as bu er zones 0 Often results in better protection because local people bene t 0 Costa Rica has high success with these reserves Sustainable Development Examples Agroforestry integrates crops with tree products and or livestock to make the most of limited space Ecotourism gives economic bene t to local people from conserving natural areas 0 Locals serve as nature guides provide lodging and food and sell handmade goods to tourists Renewable energy provides power without adding pollutants Green roo ng decreases heating and cooling costs and decreases quotheat islandquot effect in urban areas Rain water harvesting provides water for showering ushing toilets washing dishes and watering garden without depleting a well of ground water supply How can you contribute First reduce your consumption then reuse everything you can then recycle what no longer can be used 0 Carry a reusable drink bottle instead of repeatedly buying plastic bottles 0 Replace standard light bulbs with compact uorescent lights CFLs 0 Use washable canvas tote bags for groceries instead of plastic 0 Combine chores into one trip from home to reduce gas usage 0 Bike walk or carpool when possible Crash course video httpswwwvoutubecomwatchvKaevr502eU


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