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Bio 110 Lecture notes Week of 12/1

by: Abby Shepherd

Bio 110 Lecture notes Week of 12/1 BIOL110

Marketplace > Purdue University > Biology > BIOL110 > Bio 110 Lecture notes Week of 12 1
Abby Shepherd
GPA 3.88
General Biology
Dr. Anderson

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General Biology
Dr. Anderson
Class Notes
Biology, general biology, BIOL 110, bio 110, biology 110, purdue biology, evolution, Lecture Notes
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abby Shepherd on Sunday December 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL110 at Purdue University taught by Dr. Anderson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at Purdue University.


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Date Created: 12/13/15
Bio 110 Lecture Notes Week of 121 Lecture Notes 121 Evolution via natural selection Misconceptions about evolution 1 Evolution is a theory about the origin of life a Correction evolution deals with the way organisms have changed after they originated the quotbranchingquot of the tree of life 2 Organisms are always getting better through evolution a Correction evolution isn39t quotprogressquot environment determines whether a species is adapted well or poorly 2 Evolution means that life changed quotby chancequot a Correction the organisms that are better adapted to their environment survive speed increases likelihood of survival for antelope prey and cheetahs predator which is not random 2 Natural selection involves organisms quottryingquot to adapt a Correction genetic adaptation is not controlled by the organism natural selection allows welladapted individuals to survive 2 Natural selection gives organisms what they quotneedquot a Correction natural selection is not an intelligence that knows what organisms quotneedquot organisms that are bettersuited to their environment will produce more offspring than those that aren39t well su ed 2 Evolution is quotjustquot a theory a Correction in scienti c terms a theory is a hypothesis with a large body of supporting evidence and nothing that has ever disproven it not the same as quottheoryquot used in common language guess 2 Gaps in the fossil record disprove evolution a Correction fossils of many transitional forms exist ex whales and land mammal ancestors but lack of fossils does not disprove the theory 2 Evolutionary theory is incomplete a Correction science is constantly seeking new knowledge and modifying what we know based on discoveries evolution is the only wellsupported explanation for the diversity of life 2 Evolution supports quotmight makes rightquot a Correction biological evolution cannot be applied to society quotsocial Darwinismquot was an attempt at this which allowed prejudices to be justi es this has been proven false 2 Teachers should teach quotboth sidesquot a Correction there are tens of thousands of religious views concerning creation none of which have any scienti c basis and do not belong in a science class issue usually stems from groups attempting to inject their religious dogma into scienti c curricula 2 Evolution isn39t a belief system it39s a scienti c theory a You can choose to accept or reject the evidence that supports the theory of evolution but the theory is not something you do or don39t quotbeHeveinquot Evolutionary theory states that 0 There is descent with modi cation 0 Living species are descendants of ancestral species that were different from those of present day 0 There is change in genetic composition of populations from generation to generation Charles Darwin Traveled the world on HMS Beagle in 1831 mission of voyage was to chart South American coastline Collected animals and plants from South America Australia Malaysia and Africa Noticed that island species were similar to mainland species Galapagos Islands important for their unusual species 0 He noticed certain patterns during his traveling Adaptations 0 De nition inherited characteristics of organisms that enhance their survival and reproduction in speci c environments 0 New species arise from an ancestral form by gradual accumulation of adaptations to different environments Organisms share many characteristics ex DNA metabolism called quotunity of lifequot 0 Unity of life due to descent from common ancestor Descendant organisms accumulated adaptations eventually developing into new species Natural selection 0 Observation 1 members of a population vary in their inherited traits Observation 2 all species can produce more offspring than the environment can support and many of these offspring fail to survive and reproduce a Inference 1 individuals whose inherited traits give them a higher probability of surviving and reproducing in a given environment tend to leave more offspring than other individuals Inference 2 the unequal ability of individuals to survive and reproduce will lead to the accumulation of favorable traits in the population over generations Arti cial Selection 0 Same as natural selection but directly caused by people 0 Example bacterial resistance by antibiotics Lecture Notes 123 Arti cial selection The same as natural selection except it is due to humans picking certain characteristics to breed Natural selection Summary 0 Process by which individuals with certain heritable traits survive and reproduce at higher rate because of those traits 0 Over time can increase the match between organisms and environment 0 If environment changes or individuals move to new environment natural selection could result in adaptation to new conditions sometimes giving rise to new species Important points 0 Although natural selection acts on individuals individuals do not evolve The population is the smallest living unit that can evolve 0 Natural selection can only act upon heritable traits that differ among individuals in a population 0 For snails with all the same shell shape but many different shell colors natural selection could not change the shell shape but shell color could be adapted to better t the environment 0 Natural selection is always operating but which traits are favored depends on the context in which a species lives 0 The environment and species it interacts with will determine which traits are favorable The theory of evolution by natural selection 0 Overproduction every species tends to produce more individuals than can survive to maturity 0 Variation the individuals of a population have many characteristics that differ 0 Selection some individuals survive longer and reproduce more than others do 0 Adaptation the traits of those individuals that survive and reproduce will become more common in population Direct observation of Evolution Natural selection in response to introduced plant species 0 Soapberry bug native and balloon vine native and Goldenrain tree introduced in Florida 0 Balloon vine is native to Florida and its fruit is fed upon by native insect the soapberry bug o Balloon vine has become rare in FL and soapberry bugs there feed on introduced Goldenrain tree fruit instead 0 Soapberry bugs feed most effectively when the length of their beak matches the depth of the seeds within the fruit 0 Goldenrain tree fruit has 3 at lobes with seeds closer to its surface than in the round balloon vine fruit 0 Scientists predicted that natural selection would result in soapberry bugs with shorter beaks in populations feeding on Goldenrain tree fruit which is what happened Evolution of drug resistant pathogens CO 0000 O O O 13 of people on the planet have Staphylococcus aureus on their skin or in nasal passages with no harmful effects Some genetic varieties of this species strains are resistant to the antibiotic methicillin These are called quotmethicillin resistantquot S aureus MRSA Increase in MRSA in the last decade In 1943 antibiotic penicillin derived from fungus became rst widelyused antibiotic saving millions of lives By 1945 over 20 of S aureus strains were penicillin resistant Use of powerful antibiotic methicillin started in 1959 MRSA strains appeared by 1961 Methicillin works by deactivating a protein bacteria use to make their cell walls Some S aureus populations were able to construct their cell walls using a different protein that wasn39t affected by methicillin These S aureus populations survived methicillin treatment reproduced at higher rate than other populations and spread MRSA Now some MRSA strains are resistant to multiple antibiotics making treatment dif cult Supporting evidence Homology similarity resulting from common ancestry O O O Depends on how far back you would call quotrecentquot Characteristics present in ancestor are altered by natural selection over time in descendants Related species can have characteristics with underlying similarity but different function 0 Human hands and seal ippers are similar in structure Evolution can be though of as a remodeling process not a creative one Mammal forelimbs are homologous structures with same arrangement of bones from shoulder to tips of digits but with different functions This anatomical resemblance would be highly unlikely if structures had arisen anew in each species Additional homologies are visible when comparing early stages of development of different animal species 0 All vertebrate embryos have a tail posterior to behind the anus o All vertebrate embryos also have pharyngeal throat arches which develop into structures with very different functions Gills in sh Parts of ears and throat in mammals Vestigial structures are homologies that are remnants of functional features in an ancestor that are not used by the descendant Pelvis and leg bones in some snakes 0 Eye remnants buried under scales in blind cave shes o In humans male nipples body hair appendix tonsils etc c We wouldn39t expect to see these vestigial structures if these animals had origins separate from other vertebrates Shows that evolutions is quotnot progressquot Convergent evolution distantly related organisms resemble each other because of independent evolutions of similar features in different Hneages 0 Evolution explains how species that are only distantly related can appear so similar they adapted to similar environments in similar ways 0 Example sugar gliders and ying squirrels 0 Both have ap of skin between forelegs and hind legs small furry Sugar gliders are marsupial mammals Young born as embryos and mature in an external pouch Most closely related to kangaroo koala Tasmanian devil 0 Flying squirrels are eutherian mammals Young complete embryonic development in uterus Most closely related to human cat horse 0 Both are adapted to gliding in forest habitat their features are similar due to convergent evolution and are called quotanalogousquot rather than quothomologousquot Homologous vs analogous o Homologous features share recent common ancestry but not necessarily common function 0 Analogous features do NOT share recent common ancestry but DO share common function Fossil record documents pattern of evolution 0 Shows that past organisms differed from present day organisms and that some have gone extinct 0 Shows evolutionary changes that have occurred in groups of organisms Example horse species have gotten larger over evolutionary time and lost digits on their feet 0 Shows origins of new groups of organisms Example cetaceans evolved from ancestor of even toed ungulates deer pigs camels cows 0 Biogeography study of geographic distributions of species In uenced by continental drift 0 All landmasses were united into Pangea 250 million years ago 0 Pangea broke apart starting 200 million years ago separating organisms preventing movement to some areas while allowing movement to others


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