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American Revolutions, week of March 29

by: Katrina Salamon

American Revolutions, week of March 29 HIST 0848-002

Marketplace > Temple University > History > HIST 0848-002 > American Revolutions week of March 29
Katrina Salamon

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These are the notes from American Revolutions in the week of March 29
American Revolutions
Silke Zoller
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katrina Salamon on Saturday April 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 0848-002 at Temple University taught by Silke Zoller in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see American Revolutions in History at Temple University.

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Date Created: 04/02/16
March 29, 2015  Definitions of Terrorism o The definitions of terrorism differ widely, even among organizations (FBI, UN General Assembly, UN Security Council, etc. etc.)  Methodology of Exploring Terrorism o As a set of tactics o As an act of symbolic or provocative violence o As a cultural construct o Terrorism can be used as a term to delegitimize a group  Theories of Violence o Most people support violence for some specific purpose, while being  against violence in general o Moral situationalism  “Problem solved by characterizing the other’s being as inherently  violent (violent incarnate), while the actor supposedly has no  intrinsic relation to the violence done (violence incidental)”  i.e. Violence that you want to distance  yourself from: war v. war  crimes, police vs. police brutality, self defense vs. vigilantism,  liberation struggle vs. terrorism o Definitions of violence:  Subjective understanding: intentional and visible infliction of  bodily pain on others (preferred by states)  Structural understanding: violence inscribed in other processes,  languages and structures, giving only indirect signs of its harmful  effects.   States and Violence o Modern states are the only ones who are allowed to legally engage in  violence o The distinction when talking about violence is state/non­state  Forms of modern violence o *chart on slideshow*  History of Terrorism o The concept of terror underwent a politicization and transformation during the period of the French revolution o Later, terror became monopolized as a description of a totally despicable  and illegitimate act of violence o Before 1789:  From the bible to French Revolution: terror was an individual,  psychological state of fear (often connected to the force of power  that an individual cannot control)  Terror of: helplessness, eternity, arbitrary government,  policing  The Terror of the French Revolution  “Robespierrean Movement”: terror used for the creation of  order—establishment of a democratic order (becomes an  instrument of state justice)  “Anti­Robespierrean Movement”: separates the concept of  terror from the (regular or legitimate) states and projects  “terrorism” onto illegitimate states (despotisms) and private actors (terrorists)   terrorism came to mean illegitimate use of politically  motivated violence  terror increasingly reserved for the kind of fear coming  from political violence, especially from illegitimate  violence wielded by despots (dictatorships) or individuals.  o Anti­revolutionary momentum after 1815  Heads of monarchic states who wanted to roll back the  achievements of the French Revolution: helped fashion the modern concept of terror because they very strongly drew connections  between revolution and terror   The accusation of terror and terrorism has followed every  revolution th o Terrorism in the 19  Century  After the French revolution, the terror concepts increasingly  became something done “to us” “by them”—slow conceptual  development  Concepts of terror, terrorism, and terrorist were politicized but still  not energized terms during most of the 18  century  Anarchist and anarchism mostly used to describe what  modernity calls terrorism  Terrorism in Russia o 1880’s: Narodnaya Volya (“peoples’ will”)  Used small comparative groups in a decentralized network  Assassinated government officials o 1917 Russian Revolution  Mass terror becomes an instrument of state repression and state  formation  Terrorist used as a pejorative term describing counter  revolutionaries  Terrorism in early 20  century o Some conceptual developments, expanding the use to new areas opened  up by political and technological developments  Terror as a regime type: totalitarian terror  As indiscriminate warfare: terror bombing, balance of terror  As pacification: colonial terror, counter­insurgency terror   Terrorism and Decolonization o After WWII many European colonies wanted to gain independence o Terror and terrorism became discursive weapons in a war of words  between colonizers and colonized   Liberation movements deny being terrorists and try to shift the terroristic blame to the state March 31, 2016 US Policy and the Middle East  Why is it difficult to tell a comprehensive recent history of the Middle East?  Major forces of change in the middle east o Overthrowing authority (both Islam and Socialist Nationalism)  Zionism o Created by Theodore Herzl in the late 1890’s o The concept is that Jews need their own state in order to be safe from anti  Semitic discrimination  o The state should be in Palestine (Biblical homeland) o Radical idea o Zionist immigration to Palestine begins o This is the Ottoman empire at the time, which controls, Syria, turkey,  Iraq, etc.   The Balfour Declaration, 1917, Great Britain o Idealist, makes a promise that comes out of his own political leanings,  which Zionists interpret as a pledge by the British Administration o His majesty’s government approves the colonization of Palestine as a  Jewish state, etc.  o This helps them create a new Jewish state, wherein citizens enjoy  privileges of both Jews in GB, and Arabs in Palestine  Mandate Palestine  o GB continues to occupy Palestine o British Imperial Strategy in 1920’s: use potential Jewish state to justify  their occupation of Palestine o Rising tensions, increased rioting, violence between Jews and Arabs in  the area  Attacks on one another’s settlements, murder of villagers, virulent anti­Semitic and anti Arabic rhetoric o Both Arabs and Jews declare themselves ready for self government by the 1930’s, but British mandate makes it impossible (they want to keep it  because it’s a great trade route)  Difference between Sunni and Shi’ite Islam: 85%­90% of worlds Muslim are  Sunni(follow Mohamed's officials), 10% ish are Shi’ite (follow Mohamed’s  relatives),   Formation of Saudi Arabia o Early 20  Century: Arabian leader Ibn Saud embraced a form of radical  Sunnite Islam named Wahabism o ’25: Ibn Saud controls Arabian peninsula o ’26: Soviet Union recognizes Ibn Saud’s monarch  o ’31: oil found o 32: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (“Arabia of the Saud’s”)  1940’s o Nazi genocide leads to public sympathy for Zionist Jews o British try to appease both sides, try to calm situation by limiting Jewish  immigration to Palestine o Jewish Zionists turn to terrorism against the British as a result   Two Jewish terrorist organizations form: Stern Gang, Irgun Zvai  Leumi  1946: King David Hotel bombing   1950 o Iran: o Prime minister Mohammed Mossadegh nationalizes oil production o CIA and MI6 operation “Ajax” o Shah Reva Pahlavi creates authoritarian state, US and UK maintain  deniability, and also alliance with this  Gamal Abdel Nasser o 1953, becomes president of Egypt after coup to overturn previous ruler o Pan­Arabism (secular, socialist): movement to unite all Arabs.  o Not allied to Soviet Union, China, or communist block.  o He tries to remain a non­aligned person o Changed the policy of the middle east, but not get involved with the US  or SU or the cold war o Of course both try to get him involved o Try to get them to be more friendly to their own policies—damming the  Nile river. Both want to help the project  o He’s also negotiating with GB, who still has control of the Suez Canal,  which they built. He wants control to revert to Egyptians.   Suez Crisis o US pulls all funding for the Aswan dam, to force Nasser to come running  back to the US  o Instead, the SU funds it, and Nasser nationalizes the canal to show Egypt  as an independent state o GB freaks out at the prospect of losing the canal which is essential to their trade o They conspire with the Israles and decide to bring him down.  o They take the canal back with an invasion  Eisenhower’s reaction to Suez o Furious: US allies conducting the invasion had not consulted with him  (the “leader of the free world”) o Fear that Nasser would call on the Soviets for help, inviting them to gain  political power in the Middle East o US tells France, Israel, Great Britain to desist, devalues British pound.   Result: o Egypt took possession of the Suez Canal o Socviets build the Aswan Dam o Nasser became a hero to the global south o Israeli borders become more stable o French and British influence declined rapidly in the region o US took over as a new regional hegemon  Eisenhower Doctrine, 1957 o US will intervene in the Middle East, if any government threatened by a  communist takeover asked for help o American officials see a “power vacuum” as French and birtish interests  declined—projecting power into the area o Meanwhile, supporters of Nasser throughout the middle east insisted that  there was no vacuum, but rather a growing Arab nationalism that  provided the best route to self determinism  Palestinian Guerillas o Nasser begins turning freelance guerilla raids by Palestinians on Israeli  territory to an instrument of Egyptian policy  Term “Fedayeen” applied to such Palestinians in August 1955 o 1964: Formation of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), headed  by Yasser Arafat  The Six Day War o 1960’s: Israeli military buildup o in june, Israel starts a preemptive war, destroying Arab militaries (the  entire Egyptian airforce cought on the ground)  seizing control o f Sinai peninsula o political results: Nasser is humiliated, Israel becomes regional  superpower, drives Palestinians away from conquered areas, Nasser dies  of a heart attack in 1970.   UN passes resolution 242 to create a peace process in the Middle  East. Trade land for acknowledgement of the state of Israel  Nixon Doctrine o US still provide a nuclear shield for the free world o Us will not become directly involved in conflicts as much (Vietnam  ongoing) o US will rely on regional powers to help keep the peace, protect us  interests  For the Middle East: regional powers were Israel and Iran   Nixon Administration o 1968: Palestinian Fedayeen begin hijacking international airplanes o 1970: civil war in Jordan, “Black September” o October 1973: Yom Kippur War o Until March 1973: Organization of Petroleum  o Exporting countries oil embargo   The Carter Administration o 1978: camp david accords: peace treaty between Egypt and Israel  o Carter gets along really well with Nasser’s successor o Carter is only working with one nation, so they’re not a great way to  assure lasting peace in the area   He most likely believed that this was a good “first step” that  would induce follow up treaties, but none followed.   Iranian Revolution o Iran is a key US ally in the 1970’s  Us weapons shipments  Shah controlling state through SAVAK security forces  Rising Anti­Americanism o 1978 Iranian Revolution  Iranian hostage crisis, 1979­1981  Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini creates Islamic theocratic state  Iran is mostly Shi’ite Islam   *suddenly, Islam has become a political force  o They allow the Shah to enter the US for cancer treatments   Afghanistan o A group of socialist officers who decide that Afghanistan is not moving  towards socialism and communism fast enough o They seize control of Afghanistan and decide to accelerate socialism  (reforms, redistributing land, social changes, etc.) o Insurgent movement begins against them: this is happening too fast o Becomes clear that this gov’t of Afghanistan is not going to survive o The point of view matters; the Soviet Union has basically invaded  Afghanistan with the defense that an allied government has called for  help, while the US sees it as an act of war o A lot of insurgents are motivated by religion; using religion and culture as a justification to fight against the socialist regime o The US is conscious of their need to have deniability; they use their allied nations to funnel help so that it cant technically be traced back (like a  serial number on the gun) to the US  o The Saudi o Al Quaeda is founded as a result of this  Osama bin ladin is one of the first Saudi’s to enter Afghanistan  after this conflict o The SU decides enough is enough; withdraws troops o Afghanistan then degenerates to civil war as the insurgents fight for  control of the government o The more radical group, the Taliban, takes control   Iraq o Had a Baathist regime: Pan­Arab, secular movement, led by Saddam  Hussein o 1980: Iraq invades Iran 1980­88 Iran­Iraqi War  US supported both sides  o (Iraq is 60% Shi’ites o There is a revolutionary Shi’ite state, and Hussein is scared that its going  to spread to Iraq—he invades Iran and causes the war)  Palestine o Israel refuses to accept PLO as negotiating partner o Frist Intifada (87­91)  Response to denial of self­determination, Israeli occupation  Catalyzes the emergence of radical Islamist groups  Beginning of suicide bombings o Hamas (1988): seeks to “raise banner of god over Palestine”, rejects  peaceful solutions, describes Jews in strongly anti­Semitic language  


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