American Revolutions, week of March 29
American Revolutions, week of March 29 HIST 0848-002
Popular in American Revolutions
verified elite notetaker
Popular in History
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katrina Salamon on Saturday April 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 0848-002 at Temple University taught by Silke Zoller in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see American Revolutions in History at Temple University.
Reviews for American Revolutions, week of March 29
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 04/02/16
March 29, 2015 Definitions of Terrorism o The definitions of terrorism differ widely, even among organizations (FBI, UN General Assembly, UN Security Council, etc. etc.) Methodology of Exploring Terrorism o As a set of tactics o As an act of symbolic or provocative violence o As a cultural construct o Terrorism can be used as a term to delegitimize a group Theories of Violence o Most people support violence for some specific purpose, while being against violence in general o Moral situationalism “Problem solved by characterizing the other’s being as inherently violent (violent incarnate), while the actor supposedly has no intrinsic relation to the violence done (violence incidental)” i.e. Violence that you want to distance yourself from: war v. war crimes, police vs. police brutality, self defense vs. vigilantism, liberation struggle vs. terrorism o Definitions of violence: Subjective understanding: intentional and visible infliction of bodily pain on others (preferred by states) Structural understanding: violence inscribed in other processes, languages and structures, giving only indirect signs of its harmful effects. States and Violence o Modern states are the only ones who are allowed to legally engage in violence o The distinction when talking about violence is state/nonstate Forms of modern violence o *chart on slideshow* History of Terrorism o The concept of terror underwent a politicization and transformation during the period of the French revolution o Later, terror became monopolized as a description of a totally despicable and illegitimate act of violence o Before 1789: From the bible to French Revolution: terror was an individual, psychological state of fear (often connected to the force of power that an individual cannot control) Terror of: helplessness, eternity, arbitrary government, policing The Terror of the French Revolution “Robespierrean Movement”: terror used for the creation of order—establishment of a democratic order (becomes an instrument of state justice) “AntiRobespierrean Movement”: separates the concept of terror from the (regular or legitimate) states and projects “terrorism” onto illegitimate states (despotisms) and private actors (terrorists) terrorism came to mean illegitimate use of politically motivated violence terror increasingly reserved for the kind of fear coming from political violence, especially from illegitimate violence wielded by despots (dictatorships) or individuals. o Antirevolutionary momentum after 1815 Heads of monarchic states who wanted to roll back the achievements of the French Revolution: helped fashion the modern concept of terror because they very strongly drew connections between revolution and terror The accusation of terror and terrorism has followed every revolution th o Terrorism in the 19 Century After the French revolution, the terror concepts increasingly became something done “to us” “by them”—slow conceptual development Concepts of terror, terrorism, and terrorist were politicized but still not energized terms during most of the 18 century Anarchist and anarchism mostly used to describe what modernity calls terrorism Terrorism in Russia o 1880’s: Narodnaya Volya (“peoples’ will”) Used small comparative groups in a decentralized network Assassinated government officials o 1917 Russian Revolution Mass terror becomes an instrument of state repression and state formation Terrorist used as a pejorative term describing counter revolutionaries Terrorism in early 20 century o Some conceptual developments, expanding the use to new areas opened up by political and technological developments Terror as a regime type: totalitarian terror As indiscriminate warfare: terror bombing, balance of terror As pacification: colonial terror, counterinsurgency terror Terrorism and Decolonization o After WWII many European colonies wanted to gain independence o Terror and terrorism became discursive weapons in a war of words between colonizers and colonized Liberation movements deny being terrorists and try to shift the terroristic blame to the state March 31, 2016 US Policy and the Middle East Why is it difficult to tell a comprehensive recent history of the Middle East? Major forces of change in the middle east o Overthrowing authority (both Islam and Socialist Nationalism) Zionism o Created by Theodore Herzl in the late 1890’s o The concept is that Jews need their own state in order to be safe from anti Semitic discrimination o The state should be in Palestine (Biblical homeland) o Radical idea o Zionist immigration to Palestine begins o This is the Ottoman empire at the time, which controls, Syria, turkey, Iraq, etc. The Balfour Declaration, 1917, Great Britain o Idealist, makes a promise that comes out of his own political leanings, which Zionists interpret as a pledge by the British Administration o His majesty’s government approves the colonization of Palestine as a Jewish state, etc. o This helps them create a new Jewish state, wherein citizens enjoy privileges of both Jews in GB, and Arabs in Palestine Mandate Palestine o GB continues to occupy Palestine o British Imperial Strategy in 1920’s: use potential Jewish state to justify their occupation of Palestine o Rising tensions, increased rioting, violence between Jews and Arabs in the area Attacks on one another’s settlements, murder of villagers, virulent antiSemitic and anti Arabic rhetoric o Both Arabs and Jews declare themselves ready for self government by the 1930’s, but British mandate makes it impossible (they want to keep it because it’s a great trade route) Difference between Sunni and Shi’ite Islam: 85%90% of worlds Muslim are Sunni(follow Mohamed's officials), 10% ish are Shi’ite (follow Mohamed’s relatives), Formation of Saudi Arabia o Early 20 Century: Arabian leader Ibn Saud embraced a form of radical Sunnite Islam named Wahabism o ’25: Ibn Saud controls Arabian peninsula o ’26: Soviet Union recognizes Ibn Saud’s monarch o ’31: oil found o 32: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (“Arabia of the Saud’s”) 1940’s o Nazi genocide leads to public sympathy for Zionist Jews o British try to appease both sides, try to calm situation by limiting Jewish immigration to Palestine o Jewish Zionists turn to terrorism against the British as a result Two Jewish terrorist organizations form: Stern Gang, Irgun Zvai Leumi 1946: King David Hotel bombing 1950 o Iran: o Prime minister Mohammed Mossadegh nationalizes oil production o CIA and MI6 operation “Ajax” o Shah Reva Pahlavi creates authoritarian state, US and UK maintain deniability, and also alliance with this Gamal Abdel Nasser o 1953, becomes president of Egypt after coup to overturn previous ruler o PanArabism (secular, socialist): movement to unite all Arabs. o Not allied to Soviet Union, China, or communist block. o He tries to remain a nonaligned person o Changed the policy of the middle east, but not get involved with the US or SU or the cold war o Of course both try to get him involved o Try to get them to be more friendly to their own policies—damming the Nile river. Both want to help the project o He’s also negotiating with GB, who still has control of the Suez Canal, which they built. He wants control to revert to Egyptians. Suez Crisis o US pulls all funding for the Aswan dam, to force Nasser to come running back to the US o Instead, the SU funds it, and Nasser nationalizes the canal to show Egypt as an independent state o GB freaks out at the prospect of losing the canal which is essential to their trade o They conspire with the Israles and decide to bring him down. o They take the canal back with an invasion Eisenhower’s reaction to Suez o Furious: US allies conducting the invasion had not consulted with him (the “leader of the free world”) o Fear that Nasser would call on the Soviets for help, inviting them to gain political power in the Middle East o US tells France, Israel, Great Britain to desist, devalues British pound. Result: o Egypt took possession of the Suez Canal o Socviets build the Aswan Dam o Nasser became a hero to the global south o Israeli borders become more stable o French and British influence declined rapidly in the region o US took over as a new regional hegemon Eisenhower Doctrine, 1957 o US will intervene in the Middle East, if any government threatened by a communist takeover asked for help o American officials see a “power vacuum” as French and birtish interests declined—projecting power into the area o Meanwhile, supporters of Nasser throughout the middle east insisted that there was no vacuum, but rather a growing Arab nationalism that provided the best route to self determinism Palestinian Guerillas o Nasser begins turning freelance guerilla raids by Palestinians on Israeli territory to an instrument of Egyptian policy Term “Fedayeen” applied to such Palestinians in August 1955 o 1964: Formation of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), headed by Yasser Arafat The Six Day War o 1960’s: Israeli military buildup o in june, Israel starts a preemptive war, destroying Arab militaries (the entire Egyptian airforce cought on the ground) seizing control o f Sinai peninsula o political results: Nasser is humiliated, Israel becomes regional superpower, drives Palestinians away from conquered areas, Nasser dies of a heart attack in 1970. UN passes resolution 242 to create a peace process in the Middle East. Trade land for acknowledgement of the state of Israel Nixon Doctrine o US still provide a nuclear shield for the free world o Us will not become directly involved in conflicts as much (Vietnam ongoing) o US will rely on regional powers to help keep the peace, protect us interests For the Middle East: regional powers were Israel and Iran Nixon Administration o 1968: Palestinian Fedayeen begin hijacking international airplanes o 1970: civil war in Jordan, “Black September” o October 1973: Yom Kippur War o Until March 1973: Organization of Petroleum o Exporting countries oil embargo The Carter Administration o 1978: camp david accords: peace treaty between Egypt and Israel o Carter gets along really well with Nasser’s successor o Carter is only working with one nation, so they’re not a great way to assure lasting peace in the area He most likely believed that this was a good “first step” that would induce follow up treaties, but none followed. Iranian Revolution o Iran is a key US ally in the 1970’s Us weapons shipments Shah controlling state through SAVAK security forces Rising AntiAmericanism o 1978 Iranian Revolution Iranian hostage crisis, 19791981 Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini creates Islamic theocratic state Iran is mostly Shi’ite Islam *suddenly, Islam has become a political force o They allow the Shah to enter the US for cancer treatments Afghanistan o A group of socialist officers who decide that Afghanistan is not moving towards socialism and communism fast enough o They seize control of Afghanistan and decide to accelerate socialism (reforms, redistributing land, social changes, etc.) o Insurgent movement begins against them: this is happening too fast o Becomes clear that this gov’t of Afghanistan is not going to survive o The point of view matters; the Soviet Union has basically invaded Afghanistan with the defense that an allied government has called for help, while the US sees it as an act of war o A lot of insurgents are motivated by religion; using religion and culture as a justification to fight against the socialist regime o The US is conscious of their need to have deniability; they use their allied nations to funnel help so that it cant technically be traced back (like a serial number on the gun) to the US o The Saudi o Al Quaeda is founded as a result of this Osama bin ladin is one of the first Saudi’s to enter Afghanistan after this conflict o The SU decides enough is enough; withdraws troops o Afghanistan then degenerates to civil war as the insurgents fight for control of the government o The more radical group, the Taliban, takes control Iraq o Had a Baathist regime: PanArab, secular movement, led by Saddam Hussein o 1980: Iraq invades Iran 198088 IranIraqi War US supported both sides o (Iraq is 60% Shi’ites o There is a revolutionary Shi’ite state, and Hussein is scared that its going to spread to Iraq—he invades Iran and causes the war) Palestine o Israel refuses to accept PLO as negotiating partner o Frist Intifada (8791) Response to denial of selfdetermination, Israeli occupation Catalyzes the emergence of radical Islamist groups Beginning of suicide bombings o Hamas (1988): seeks to “raise banner of god over Palestine”, rejects peaceful solutions, describes Jews in strongly antiSemitic language