Week 11 Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eric Jackson on Monday December 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COMM370010 at University of Delaware taught by Angelini,James R. in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views.
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Date Created: 12/14/15
Theories of Mass Communication – Week 11 BEST/WORST QUESTIONS FROM EXAM 2 Which of the following perspectives on audiences is based upon audience size and count? A. Audience as Active B. Audience as Aggregate C. Audience as Instrument D. Audience as Market E. Audience as Mass Which of the following in NOT a way in which reality and fantasy are differentiated? A. Alertness – Emotion B. Aware of Threats – Removes Threats C. Enlightenment – Wish Fulfillment D. More Anxiety – Less Anxiety E. Actually all of the above are ways in which reality and fantasy are differentiated. True or False: It is believed that one of the greatest strengths of the uses and gratifications theoretical approach is its explanation of habitual usage of the media. A. True B. False this is the greatest criticism of this approach! Which of the following is one that Perse found for people’s use of erotica, which involves a more solitary use of erotica, primarily for fantasy, and is considered to be a safe and positive outlet for sex and sexual behaviors? A. diversion B. sexual enhancement C. sexual release D. substitution E. none of the above Match definition to the term that explains why the media has powerful effects on public opinion: A widespread presence of the media because it is everywhere and there are few locations we can go where it is not present. A. abundance B. consonance C. cumulation D. proliferation E. ubiquity Theories of Mass Communication – Week 11 Which of the following is NOT TRUE about views about audiences? A. Audiences are localized to a time and a place. B. Nielsen ratings are an example of a view of the audience as a market. C. The idea of the audience as mass would hold that propaganda is effective. D. The view of the audience as aggregate is not originally a communication- centered approach. E. The uses and gratifications approach takes the view that audience is active. True or False: The uses and gratifications approach focuses on why people select media content but does not concern itself at all with the effects media can have. A. True B. False intentional and unintentional effects of the media are considered Match definition to the term that explains why the media has powerful effects on public opinion. A unified picture of an event or issue is presented across media. A. abundance B. consonance C. cumulation D. proliferation E. ubiquity Herzog in the 1940’s studied the reasons why fans of radio soap operas tuned into these programs each and every day. One possible reason what that of wishful thinking. Perse did a similar study in the 1980’s with TV soap operas. Which of the following categories of needs found by Perse best matches up with Herzog’s wishful thinking? A. Escapist Relaxation B. Exciting Information C. Pass Time D. Social Utility E. Voyeurism ____________ is the pleasure derived from the media, though what causes this differs from person to person. A. Excitatory Potential B. Hedonic Valence measures positivity or negativity C. Hegemonic Masculinity D. Personal Integrative E. None of the Above Theories of Mass Communication – Week 11 True or False: According to Spiral of Silence theory, a fear of isolation from others is the driving force behind why the vocal minority does not discuss their opinions and attitudes about an issue. A. True B. False the vocal minority are the ones who do speak up! MEDIA DEPENDENCY AKA Media Systems Dependency Active Audience select certain media to achieve personal goals. - They want to get something out of the experience - Become dependent on the media for this to meet specific needs - Repeatability is big here – if we know that something elicits a certain response in us then we will choose that over and over again - Dependency means that the media is important to the individual o Media has much more influence and power than some members of the audience actually realize - People rely more on mass media and less on interpersonal networks/relationships for information o Turn first to the mass media – totally against two-step flow because there is no interpersonal communication takes opinion leaders out of the equations Ambiguity - We face different kinds of questions and uncertainty in our everyday lives - Perceived ambiguity: person faced with entirely new social situation that they do not at all understand - Focused ambiguity: people understand social situation but don’t know what to do next o Unable to determine appropriate actions within a known situation o Ex: natural disasters – you know what a tornado is but when one comes it’s hard to know what to do – turn to media for help - Audience is dependent on media to resolve this ambiguity Influences on Media Dependency - Number of needs a single medium can meet o If one source can be informative and entertaining, it is more likely that someone will become dependent on this one source rather than one informative and one entertainment - Number of available media sources o Become dependent on a select few media o More sources means less dependence needed on a single source o Ex: small town with one newspaper – very likely that someone would become dependent on that one source alone - Familiarity Theories of Mass Communication – Week 11 o If someone is already familiar with a topic, they will not be dependent on the media to learn and understand o Perry – gave groups identical foreign news stories ½ people told it was about a well-known European country ½ people told it was about an unknown African country People were more dependent on the news stories about the unknown Africa company and took more info from it o Prentice – college news story study Same idea – story about the unknown university was more influential and persuasive - Overall level of uncertainty o If faced with a situation you’re extremely uncomfortable with, you’ll turn more to the media for info o Lowrey – September 11 thstudy Large metropolitan city in the south Respondents were asked how effective they thought media sources (TV, radio, etc.) were at giving information about terrorism Increased suspicion in some people Intensity of Media Dependency - Dependent on how well people think that the media is reaching their goals - If the media is doing a good job people will be more dependent on that - Categories of groups o Social and self-understanding – learning about your place in the world o Action orientation – deciding what item to buy, how to handle certain situations – how to act/react o Social and solitary play – goal is to relax, bring some sort of enjoyment to individual or group SOCIAL LEARNrdG THEORY From the 3 phase of media effects research (powerful effects model) - Albert Bandura is the best-known theorist for this Much learning takes place through observing the behavior of others - Observational learning – you see someone do it and learn that way - Reinforcement theory – earlier version of learning theory o Learning only occurs with a reward o Keep behaviors that reward us and avoid those that punish us - Bandura thought this wasn’t a good way to describe all learning – learning doesn’t require a reward, just observation Three Principles - People learning by observing behaviors (and their outcomes) Theories of Mass Communication – Week 11 - Learning can occur without a change in behavior o You don’t need to replicate the behavior of someone else to have learned something - Cognition plays a role in learning Important concept: modeling - This is the actual reproduction of what you see - Four basic steps o Attention – you have to actually see the model to be aware of the behavior o Retention – person observing must remember the behavior o Reproduction – observer’s physical ability to replicate the behavior This can be quite difficult due to possible physical limitations in the observer o Motivation – observer must want to reproduce and learn the behavior If they don’t want to do it then they won’t do it well