Week 13 Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eric Jackson on Monday December 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COMM370010 at University of Delaware taught by Angelini,James R. in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views.
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Date Created: 12/14/15
Theories of Mass Communication Week 13 Coactivation Theory cont d Coactivation means that they are simultaneously active Inherent Characteristics Appetitive System 0 More active in a neutral environment allows us to investigate things we are not familiar with I This is what makes us leave our homes basically o Positivity offset difference between appetitive activation and aversive activation in a neutral environment Aversive System 0 Responds more quickly to stimuli than appetitive system I This makes sense because it is usually something unfamiliar that quickly enters our environment 0 Used to protect against danger we have to act quickly so that s why this ramps up 0 Negativity bias this means it has a steeper slope ramp up Positivity Offset o Sensation seeking behaviors I Higher positivity offset more likely to do dangerous activities like skydiving etc o Indicator of drug and alcohol use and abuse especially in younger individuals 0 Enjoy lots of camera changes faster paced programming in media Negativity Bias 0 Avoidance of sensation seeking behaviors 0 Little to no excess drug alcohol use 0 Startle enhancement you startle more to a new unfamiliarity entering the environment I Eye blink re ex occurs when startled this happens to everyone I This indicates that you should move away from whatever startled you ie the danger I Harder eye blink more perceived danger I Thus you have a smaller blink for positive stimuli o Stronger eye blinks for negative media have been found I Indicative of the body s desire to avoid such media Everyone has differences in positivity offset and negativity bias Different thresholds before appetitive and aversive systems are activated 0 These can change as we grow up and mature I Children are higher in positivity offset they do not have as much of a sense of what to avoid Measured through Motivational Activation Measure MAM 0 Exposed to 121 still pictures 0 Mini MAM 35 still pictures Theories of Mass Communication Week 13 I Had to be adjusted for children because some of the pictures could not be shown to children Youth Oriented MAM YO MAM 45 still images I Not at all positive 69 very positive I Not at all negative 69 very negative I Not at all aroused 69 very aroused I Mix of positive and negative I Mix of arousing and calm pictures Calculations are made for each individual s positivity offset and negativity bias High Positivity Offset High Positivity Offset Low Negativity Bias High Negativity Bias Risk Takers Coactives Low Positivity Offset Low Positivity Offset Low Negativity Bias High Negativity Bias Inactives Risk Avoiders Applications in Mass Communication Used to examine the effectiveness of public service announcements 0 These ads are attempting to stop kids with high positivity offset by giving a high negativity bias to try to balance it Predictor of channel changing behavior Design of video games 0 Use many positive and negative images researchers examine which types of activities in the games work best ELABORATION LIKLIHOOD MODEL ELM Theory of Persuasion John Caccioppo ELM examines what it is about content of the message that affects cognitive processes Specifies the conditions under which persuasion is mediated by message related thinking What about messages makes us more likely to think about them What makes it more or less persuasive for an individual Also examines alternate peripheral outside mechanisms account for persuasion when these conditions are not met 0 Basically what else besides the message makes us think about the message that persuades us Elaboration the extent to which people think about issue relevant arguments contained in the persuasive messages Theories of Mass Communication Week 13 If message content is not relevant to us then message will be less powerful and less persuasive Depends on existing attitudes how capable we are of understanding and processing the messages content Two Basic Routes One of two basic routes is taken toward correct attitude adoption central or peripheral Central Route 0 Requires more effort by the individual 0 Carefully scrutinizes the issue and relevant arguments based upon prior experience and knowledge 0 Thus there is considerable amount of elaboration going on here 0 Elaboration is likely to occur when variables ensure motivation and ability for relevant thinking 0 Attitudes formed on this route are persistent and very difficult to change because so much cognitive effort was required 0 Change can occur but only when there is a very convincing counterargument is made with a comparable amount of cognitive effort put into it Peripheral Route 0 Persuasion occurs due to a simple cue o This cue can be something like how attractive the source is or the number of arguments presented I They don t have to be good points they can just overwhelm you with information in an attempt to persuade you 0 Change happens without elaboration on the true merits of the information presented Factors that do not initiate central processing take over Attitudes formed are less persistent and easily subject to change 0 Ex what if an even more attractive person comes along with a counterargument You could be easily swayed Requires much less cognitive effort overall Diverting to this route can be an effective method of persuasion 0 You don t want people to think too deeply into your argument Factors That In uence Elaboration Those that impact motivation how willing you are to devote time to thinking about the argument 0 Personal involvement in the topic you will be more motivated if you have some personal connection 0 Mood good mood will make you more receptive to the argument so you don t elaborate as much I You ll dwell more and elaborate when you re in a negative mood 0 Need for cognition Theories of Mass Communication Week 13 I How much an individual likes enjoys to think about things I High for this need are more likely to take the time to think about persuasive messages more they ll rely more on central processing Those that impact ability 0 Distraction you won t be able to focus fully on the message 0 Feararousal if IPetauaaiueeemmunieatieal someone feels PERIPHER L TTITMUE SHIFT threatened they Will be Changed attitude ie relatiuely MDTIU TEDTD FRGEEES Li39liii 3bl less likely to take the lpermal imlmmr E aerate water H E e r 7 g r 39 auntetpeteuaeidmaad peripheral TOUte Em mr Eggn39t39m39 Em unpredietiue eii behavieur 0 Use of rhetorical e5 questions message is it 395 Tye less persuasive if it uses a a a h b d at EILIT Tquot TE PRGCESS IS 35quot PERlF HER L PRDCESS t ese eaus 1 oesn i39diettaetiati tepetitiati I UPER TINE glve the 1nd1Vldual much anammger Eric ieepettiee aii edutee admire T3quot atttaetiuetieee Liee at to COHSIder E5 heuriatiea ete I Nothing super 3quot concrete to in WHiiT IS THE martial evaluateElaborate 3F THE PRQCESHNE on i atdumeatduality FiET iIN INITIaL eTrlTiiIIZiE initial attitude eta attitude deee tiet Change 39 ACtS as a tram pteiiidue peeitidti disruption of aaae MDRE T Flewg ma a LE UNF VD UFljiB LE central process1ng THWEHTS THWEHTS m o V1v1dness of messages TH tN aeeaaea THeN EEFDRE content Jr VL 3E5 3E5 emotional colorful examples interrupt IS THERE a meme IN t 1 t CDENITIUE STRLLICTLLIRE rm cen ra process1ng rou e Th ugmmheargalr Construction of strong vs weak reileenentime ere arguments 3E5 FEE favorable thoughts t a 7 a PEWFw ca m pp w 1935 magram CENTREL PDSITIUEINEE TIE E E a I These Wlll affect aTFITiiIEiE CHaNaE ii a eaener i Change 33911 ME i5 VE39BWEIE u 39 jong term Changes enduring i39ESiStEi iit ta eauatet 11 1 peteuaeieti and predictive dii attitudes opinions mm 0 Weak arguments elicit unfavorable thoughts I There isn t much substance or facts to support the argument I Not very likely to change attitudes o What makes something a strong or weak argument is a completely subjective categorization Major Criticism of ELM If an argument impacts motivation and ability at differing levels how can its overall persuasiveness be measured Theories of Mass Communication Week 13 Petty and Caccioppo s Response 0 Measure the variables that would impact the route taken to determine the arguments effectiveness for each individual KNOWLEDGEGAPS Mass media gets information out to people not usually reached However there are unintended negative effects 0 Mass media may actually increase the gap of knowledge between social classes 0 Could occur because of geographical location different educational backgrounds or socioeconomic backgrounds 0 Less access to new media technology can also cause this Education Level Better educated people will gain knowledge faster about heavily publicized topics Research has shown this gap to occur between groups with different educational backgrounds Causes of Knowledge Gaps Communication skills and socioeconomic status Prior education and knowledge 0 This broadens the knowledge gap because you don t have to catch up on the basics if you got them previously Relevant social contacts 0 Might have discussions on topics and broaden the gap that way Selective exposure 0 Some people in a lower SES aren t interested in higher publicized topics because they don t think it s relevant to their lives Nature of the media system access 0 Normally people of a higher SES have more access to these other media sources like journals or alternate newspapers Important Concept Digital Divide This is a gap between those with access to information technology and those without 0 Happens either through I Differences in physical access I Differences in skills needed to use the media technology Groups often discussed in this context 0 Socioeconomic rich poor I Have money to get technology and education to use technology and interpret media 0 Racial white non white 0 Geographical urban rural I Takes more time for technology to diffuse to rural areas Theories of Mass Communication Week 13 Sesame Street Original goal was to target under privileged inner city children to help them be more ready when they started school This idea was soon challenged argued it would not equalize education as intended How much is it really watched in homes where the heads differ in their educational background 0 ie education isn t as important in some houses 0 It was found that the higher the level of the education of the head of the household the more likely Sesame Street would be watched 0 Thus it really wasn t closing the knowledge gap Even among those who do watch the advantaged children receive better achievement test scores 0 Could be because they have more access to resources or simply because education was more important in their household Gap does appear to be reduced in the heaviest viewers 0 There is some benefit to the show Refining Knowledge Gaps Gap declines when there is a perceived con ict over an issue 0 Both sides have a vested interest in the issue to be able to make the best arguments possible to engage in discussion Widens in pluralistic community one with a diverse population with many information sources Reduces in homogenous communities 0 Few resources of information shared by everyone 0 People get info from the same places so they ll have the same knowledge less choice less knowledge gap Declines when an issue has an immediate and strong local impact Overcoming Knowledge Gaps Ceiling effects eventually someone will know everything there is to know about a topic 0 Everyone else will start catching up to them Identify target audiences to tailor messages to 0 Find people who lack the specific knowledge to help them learn Provide identical messages in different formats 0 Ex English and Spanish versions Highlight the information s utility make sure the audience understands why and how the info is important THEORY OF REASONED ACTION TRA Used in persuasion and providing persuasive messages Dr Martin Fishbein 1967 Wanted to understand relationship between attitudes and behaviors o Predicting if people will go through with a particular behavior Theories of Mass Communication Week 13 Work leading up to theory distinguished between attitude toward an object and attitude toward a behavior related to the object 0 Object breast cancer 0 Behavior seeking a mammogram I Might know that it s a good thing to get but don t want to get it for certain personal reasons 0 Fishbein thought that people s attitudes towards the object would in uence their attitude toward behavior I Ex if people had negative attitude towards breast cancer they d have a positive attitude towards getting a mammogram THIS ISN T ALWAYS TRUE 0 Attitude of a behavior is a better predictor of that behavior I Better predictor is person s attitude towards getting a mammogram Behavioral Intention perceived likelihood of performing a behavior 0 Result of a combination of I Attitude towards behavior I Subjective norms will other people around them approve or disapprove of the behavior Attitude towards the Behavior Behavioral Beliefs belief that a behavior is associated with certain outcomes or attributes Evaluation of Behavioral Outcomes o Belief that outcomes are positive or negative 0 Based on how positively or negatively some outcome attribute is perceived Perceived likelihood of an outcome also comes into play Subjective Norms Normative beliefs beliefs about if others would approve or disapprove of the behavior Motivation to comply how motivated you are to cooperate with what others think 0 De ends on who is telling you to do or not do the action m Evaluade mm N Opinicuol Noun Motivation to Oomph I ishbein39Airn Thwr of Renaunul Action Theories of Mass Communication Week 13 Evolution of the TRA TRA assumes the most important direct determinant of behavior is behavioral intention 0 Based on behavior being under volitional control 0 Basically people will be more likely to perform the behavior if they can exercise a large degree of control over the behavior Believed TRA isn t sufficient for predicting behavior when this control is reduced 0 ie when environmental conditions may prevent the behavior 0 Led to TPB THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR TPB Perceived Behavioral Control How much volitional control an individual has over a situation Consider 0 Control beliefs perceived likelihood of occurrence of each facilitating or constraining condition 0 Perceived power perceived effect of each condition making behavioral performance difficult or easy I How much control do you feel after assessing these conditions I Condition helps you 9 feel more power I Condition hinders you 9 feel less power Crafting Persuasive Media Messages PSAs 0 Looks at people s motivations and others perceptions of them 0 Identifies key behavioral beliefs normative beliefs and environmental factors that can affect a behavior I Smoking I Drinking I Substance use I Seat belt use I Oral hygiene
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