Week 14 Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eric Jackson on Monday December 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COMM370010 at University of Delaware taught by Angelini,James R. in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views.
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Date Created: 12/14/15
Theories of Mass Communication Week 14 HYPERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Computer mediated communication that is more sociably desirable than face to face interaction Potential effects 0 Problematic internet use 0 Internet addiction 0 Depression 0 Distraction o Atomization Problematic Internet Use Three main characteristics 0 Depressed lonely people have negative perceptions of their social competence I Believe people they re interacting with will develop negative attitudes about them in face to face interactions 0 These people will prefer online social interactions why I Greater level of anonymity no one knows who you are I Greater control over selfpresentation you re not actually seen so you can lie about yourself to make a depiction of yourself how you want to be not as you actually are I More intimate disclosures people feel more free online to discuss normally taboo topics I Less perceived social risk if you think you re being judged you don t care as much as if it happened in person because the judgements seem less valid from anonymous people 0 This preference leads to excessive and compulsive computer interactions I They crave those environments and relationships because they feel more welcome and accepted I Often lose track of time spent online I Like the state of ow Internet Addiction Characterized by spending 40 80 hours per week online Disrupts individual sleep patterns This has recently become a medically recognized mental illness psychiatric problem Alters the brain physiologically 0 Americans average 30 hours a week online 0 Looking at pictures of brains of heavy versus light users prefrontal cortex was different 0 Brain is activated in different ways online versus on paper Has a lure like that of food and sex not drugs and alcohol 0 Food and sex are needs but can be harmful if excessive Theories of Mass Communication Week 14 Share similarities to other types of addition and impulse control disorders Internet addition and depression 0 Depression is often tied to addiction 0 Undergrads who showed signs of depression were most intense internet users I Anhedonia inability to experience emotions I This can happen from quickly switching between many websites looking for emotional stimulation Depression Facebook Depression 0 Seen in some preteens and teens when they spend a great deal of time on social media sites 0 Online world is intense for social acceptance FOMO Fear of Missing Out 0 Most smartphone users under 50 check their text messages e mails or social network sites every 15 minutes Distraction Issue constantly raised particularly for young people Reduces ability to concentrate use imagination use critical thinking skills Time spent with digital devices deprives our brain of needed downtime 0 Working against the learning process because of excessive stimulation Also causes impatience with the of ine world 0 71 of teachers in US say their students attention span is reduced Atomization This means disconnecting individuals from one another and their communities The technology of the internet what about this makes people disconnect from one another 0 Algorithms sets of data that when combined determine what content people see on the internet 0 Cookies an identifying code added to a computer s hard drive by a visited website The algorithms take into account what you ve looked up and seem to enjoy to try to extrapolate and tailor ads and webpages to you 0 Filter bubble ecosystem of information created by algorithms for each individual 0 This gives us information that fits behaviors needs and biases that we ve displayed in the past Theories of Mass Communication Week 14 o It never challenges us or who we are it isolates us and doesn t allow us to expose ourselves to the multitude of information out there 0 They concentrate control over what we see and what opportunities we are offered SCHEMA THEORY A schema is a mental structure which represents a person s knowledge about some aspect of the world These are abstracted from prior experiences to shape our reactions for future encounters These are used to process new information and retrieve stored information 0 We can retrieve info easily if we have a database of schemas Set up expectations about what is probable in a given situation Graber 1988 People use schemas to process news stories 0 Straight matching a story to a schema 0 Processing through inferences your brain may take a similar but not identical situation and attribute factors from one schema to that situation 0 Multiple schemas might be necessary to process a situation Cueing tactic used by news providers to access a specific schema in the audience members 0 Trying to get them to think about a situation in a certain way If info is matched with a schema some portion of the information will be stored as part of a modified schema 0 It s an iterative process your schema will be altered for the next time you encounter a similar situation What happens if a matching schema isn t found to help you process it 0 Information will pass by without being absorbed or it will force you to form new schemas at least foundations of them Schema and Processing Television Social schemas are based on our knowledge and expectations of the world 0 We expect events to take a place in a certain event occur in a certain order and involve certain kinds of people Textual schemas are based on our knowledge of the media Social Schemas Within this there are script event schemas o This is a schema for a familiar event that is common to a lot of people Theories of Mass Communication Week 14 o Sequential list of the characteristic events involved in a common routine 0 Also includes props roles enabling conditions and outcomes I Props include physical items that will bring up schemas and act as cues for remembering a certain schema Role Schemas 0 Knowledge of behaviors expected in particular social situations 0 Stereotypes come into play here Textual Schemas Story Schema o Expectations about how a narrative conventionally proceeds Genre Schema 0 Knowledge about related kinds of texts programs 0 Ex you know what to basically expect from sitcoms dramas etc Schemas for the Formal Features 0 Expectations for editing and camera works 0 Where why zooms and camera changes will occur Gender Schema Mental structure which guide the processing of information about men and women 0 How they look feel and act 0 We start developing these schemas at a very young age These are formed through personal experience observation including exposure to the media 0 Get some info from parents loved ones but a lot comes from media reinforcing certain stereotypical schemas 0 Role schemas are used a lot in television so that people can identify a character quickly 0 Children who are heavy TV watchers are more likely to become gender stereotypes Inconsistencies with schemas tend to go unnoticed by children 0 Activation and reinforcement must occur to change schema 0 They need to see non stereotypical examples repeatedly to change this schemas
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