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ARH 253 Module 9 Notes

by: Paula Ramirez

ARH 253 Module 9 Notes

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These are from the Module 9 video.
Class Notes
ARH253, Art History
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Paula Ramirez on Saturday April 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views.


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Date Created: 04/02/16
Module 9 Notes: The 19  Century: Romanticism and Romantic Landscapes  Part 1: The 19    century A review…The French Revolution 1789­1799 ­Bourgeoisie and working class vs clergy and nobility ­French revolt against monarchy ­Bourgeoisie was growing ­lack of representation in legislative body ­First major event: Storming of the Bastille on July 14  1789 ­Marie Antoinette and Louis XVI executed 1793 ­led to Reign of Terror by Robespierre, 1793­1794 ­Constitution of the Year VIII­ended French Revolution ­Napoleon Bonaparte becomes First Consul of France Napoleon Bonaparte 1799: becomes First Consul of France ­leadership position originating from Ancient Roman Empire 1804: becomes Emperor of First Republic ­Also King of Italy 1812: Invades Russia; retreats ­wanted to expend borders of France 1815: defeated by British at Waterloo ­flees France, dies 6 years later in exile ­Art under Napoleon ­Imperial Iconography ­Art attempts to mold public opinion with propagandistic imagery ­Art that constructs such an image that it can manipulate viewer to change their  mind or perception of scene depicted in front of them ­Jacque­Louis David ­imprisoned but released when French Revolution ends ­named First Painter by Napoleon ­choosing David symbolized Napoleon’s source of authority ­Coronation of Napoleon ­1805­1808, Neoclassical ­documents coronation as Emperor ­takes place within Notre Dame in Paris ­wife Josephine receives crown ­Pope Pious VII behind Napoleon ­right: clergy within Catholic Church ­left: Napoleon’s court ­symmetry of church & state; Napoleon in center ­Napoleon crowns himself ­Antoine­Jean Gros ­David’s student ­Napoleon at the Pesthouse at Jaffa ­1804, Neoclassical ­remark 1799 outbreak of the plague in the near East at this time ­Jaffa is in present­day Israel ­Napoleon is in center; French soldier behind him ­Napoleon reaches out to diseased individual; takes off glove; impervious to pain  or disease; Christ­like look (hand reaching out; Christ visiting diseased) ­Pesthouse ­hospital or house built to accommodate or quarantine people with  diseases ­painted to curve bad press ­Napoleon ordered people to be poisoned; some survived and spoked  poorly of Napoleon  ­Jean­Auguste­Dominique Ingres ­Grande Odalisque ­1814, Neoclassical ­obvious influence from the Venus of Urbino ­reclining nude ­eastern spin; peacock feathers; hookah; exotic fabrics ­Romanticism ­Shift from Neoclassicism to Romanticism=Shift from Reason to Feeling ­Romanticism refers to Emotion: all kinds ­Also, introducing darkness, nightmares, the grotesque, the insane… ­The Sublime: feelings of awe mixed with terror ­First introduced by Edmund Burke ­seen in landscape imagery; some images can be thrilling; example: lightning  storm (can be beautiful, yet frightening) ­desire for freedom Henry Fuseli ­The Nightmare ­1781, Romanticism ­exemplifies vivid imagination  ­attempt to capture human subconscious ­demon lies over a woman William Blake ­writer and artist ­Ancient of Days ­1794, Romanticism ­fusion of Romanticism and Neoclassicism ­idealized, classical, anatomical figure ­from Europe, a Prophecy Francisco Goya ­Spanish artist ­The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters from Los Caprichos ­1798, Romanticism ­etching ­8 by 5 inches ­Los Caprichos: The Caprices or The Impulses ­someone asleep over writing table (more than likely Goya); around him monsters loom overhead; owls and bats: symbolic of folly and ignorance ­when reason is suppress, there is an emergence of enlightenment ­sleep of reason produces monsters; imagination; new way of thinking ­Third of May, 1808 ­1814­1815, Romanticism ­Royal commission for Ferdinand VII ­French troops that initially invaded Spain; executed Spanish citizens ­Horrific image; unarmed figures; terrified figures; Christ­like figure (martyr)  ­Saturn Devouring One of His Children ­1819­1823, Romanticism ­Goya’s health & mind began to fade; this image painted as part of Goya’s series  painted from his farmhouse (Black Paintings­ discovered after his death, most  likely for private use) ­Saturn: notion of time; Goya’s view on passage of time (dark image) ­Goya’s battle of growing old Theodore Gericault ­Romantic Renegade (anti­establishment artist) ­French artist; retained interest in heroic and classical epic stories of neoclassicism ­abolitionist ­Raft of the Medusa ­1818­1819, Romanticism ­depicts actual event that took place off the coast of Africa ­ship called the Medusa that wrecked due to an incompetent captain ­150 remaining passengers; raft drifted for 12 days; only 15 passengers  left  ­8 months to complete ­jumbled bodies and anatomically correct ­diagonal line; moment when they find refuge ­black figure would have been a slave on this ship ­strong, energetic; epitome of strength  ­Insane Woman ­1822­1823, Romanticism ­Gericault studied “the insane” at insane hospitals ­mental disturbance on face ­Eugene Delacroix ­first photograph of an artist we see ­colorist ­Death of Sardanapalus ­1827, Romanticism ­vivid colors ­Liberty Leading the People ­1830, Romanticism ­actual event; July 1830 Revolution ­uprise against King Charles X ­woman leading these people; allegorical figure of liberty; bare­breasted liberty ­Paris; right side in the background is Notre Dame ­Romantic Landscapes ­First emerged in the 19  century from interest in tourism due to Industrial Revolution  ­How can landscapes be Romantic? ­Natural scenes that are emotional, spiritual ­“Artists participated in the spirit of the landscape, becoming translators of  nature’s transcendent meanings”. Gardner’s Caspar David Friedrich ­Abbey in the Oak Forrest ­1810, Romanticism ­perfect example of transcendental landscape ­funeral procession through Gothic ruins ­barren trees ­focus on mortality ­work of meditation ­Albert Bierstadt ­member of Hudson River School ­group of artists that painted scenes along Hudson River in New York ­painted many unchartered landscapes ­Among the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California ­1868, Romanticism ­very famous work th  Part 2: The 19    Century: The Sublime J.M.W. Turner ­Joseph Mallord William Turner ­The Slave Ship ­1840, Romanticism ­turbulent, energized  ­“the sublime” ­humbling man ­color; chaos; sun becomes engorged and flies across canvas ­remind us of our mortality Realism ­First developed in mid­19  century France ­Stemmed from increasing interest in Industrial Revolution inspired science ­Artists began recording only what they saw ­Sights of everyday contemporary life ­The mundane, working class, laborers, peasants Gustave Courbet: “I have never seen an angel show me an angel, and I’ll paint one” ­referring to “academic painting” ­The Stone Breakers ­1849, Realism ­copy of the original; original was destroyed in 1945 British bombing ­old man; young boy ­toil and pain are available to everyone ­working class members don’t matter within social structure ­Burial at Ornans ­1849, Realism ­modeled after actual people from his hometown; his sisters ­10 by 21 feet; scale made critics hate it ­ordinary subject matter; no real focal point ­lack of the sublime; no drama; no heroism ­Jean­Francois Millet ­The Gleaners ­1857, Realism ­3 peasant women gleaning (gathering of wheat after wheat has been reaped; take  home scraps) ­anonymity ­figures are thrusted in the viewer’s face ­Honore Daumier ­print­maker ­published political newspapers within Paris ­Rue Transnonain ­1834, Realism ­indicative of controversial career ­depict own personal feelings ­event that took place in 1834 (Massacre of 1834)  ­French Guard killed by unknown origin ­troubling image; man in sleep clothes laying on child ­Lithograph: printmaking technique in which oil­based crayon is drawn directly  on stone plate. Water is then wiped on the stone, followed by ink, which only  adheres to crayon. A print is then made on paper. ­Daumier’s view of King Louis Phlippe I ­Louis resembled a “pear”; made an image of him turning into a pear ­Louis regurgitating citizens’ goods in another image ­Edouard Manet ­Most certainly a Realist, sometimes impressionist; sometimes neither ­Bridge between Realism and Impressionism ­would take works from old masters and manipulate them ­Le Dejeuner sur L’Herbe (Luncheon on the Grass) ­1863, Realism ­landscape with seated figures; naked woman (Victorine Meurent­ makes eye  contact with viewer) ­right man (Manet’s brother) ­flat style; thick, black contour lines ­Olympia ­1863, Realism ­not exhibited until 2 years later ­more controversial ­Victorine Meruent; makes eye contact with viewer ­Venus of Urbino; seated upright ­black cat; black woman bringing flowers ­cat sexualizes scene; suggest wildness ­woman is maid; represents racial tensions ­depiction of a courtisane  ­title is climax; Olympia is slang term for prostitute Raphael ­Judgment of Paris ­almost identical to Manet’s artwork Daumier’s opinion of the 1863 Salon ­The Salon of Venuses ­overwhelming nude figures ­Thomas Eakins ­American artist from Philadelphia ­The Gross Clinic ­1875, Realism ­Dr. Gross ­accurate portrait; in stands were medical students ­remark on state of medicine ­early anesthetics of ether; patient has bone disease ­mother is hiding; looking frightened ­John Singer Sargent ­elitist portraitist ­modern people in modern context ­The Daughters of Edward Darley Boit ­1882, Realism ­portrait of 4 daughters of Boit ­eldest in background; can’t see face ­Pre­Raphaelitism ­English artists group, organized in 1848 ­Outraged by the state of the world during Industrialization ­Wanted simpler, more beautiful times ­Their art focused on spirituality, idealism, and artisanship ­Pre­Raphaelite refers to the moralizing art made before Raphael ­Subject matter: moralizing scenes, literary scenes­Arthurian, Shakespeare,  English poetry John Everett Millais ­One of the founders of the Pre­Raphaelites Brotherhood (PRB) ­Ophelia ­1852, Pre­Raphaelitism ­Shakespearian ­character from Hamlet; ailed from a broken heart from Hamlet; mysteriously  drowned in the river ­Elizabeth Siddal was the model ­got pneumonia for modeling so long in the tub Dante Gabrial Rossetti ­husband of Elizabeth Siddal ­founder of PRB ­painter and poet ­Beata Beatrix ­1863, Pre­Raphaelitism ­painted after Elizabeth died while pregnant at age 32 due to opium overdose ­Beatrix taken to Heaven in a trance ­red dove: love and death; puts a poppy in hand: poppy is symbol of sleep, death,  hypnosis ­Wizard of Oz; poppies given to make them sleepy; opium trance; poppies allow  opium to be made


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