ARH 253 Module 9 Notes
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Date Created: 04/02/16
Module 9 Notes: The 19 Century: Romanticism and Romantic Landscapes Part 1: The 19 century A review…The French Revolution 17891799 Bourgeoisie and working class vs clergy and nobility French revolt against monarchy Bourgeoisie was growing lack of representation in legislative body First major event: Storming of the Bastille on July 14 1789 Marie Antoinette and Louis XVI executed 1793 led to Reign of Terror by Robespierre, 17931794 Constitution of the Year VIIIended French Revolution Napoleon Bonaparte becomes First Consul of France Napoleon Bonaparte 1799: becomes First Consul of France leadership position originating from Ancient Roman Empire 1804: becomes Emperor of First Republic Also King of Italy 1812: Invades Russia; retreats wanted to expend borders of France 1815: defeated by British at Waterloo flees France, dies 6 years later in exile Art under Napoleon Imperial Iconography Art attempts to mold public opinion with propagandistic imagery Art that constructs such an image that it can manipulate viewer to change their mind or perception of scene depicted in front of them JacqueLouis David imprisoned but released when French Revolution ends named First Painter by Napoleon choosing David symbolized Napoleon’s source of authority Coronation of Napoleon 18051808, Neoclassical documents coronation as Emperor takes place within Notre Dame in Paris wife Josephine receives crown Pope Pious VII behind Napoleon right: clergy within Catholic Church left: Napoleon’s court symmetry of church & state; Napoleon in center Napoleon crowns himself AntoineJean Gros David’s student Napoleon at the Pesthouse at Jaffa 1804, Neoclassical remark 1799 outbreak of the plague in the near East at this time Jaffa is in presentday Israel Napoleon is in center; French soldier behind him Napoleon reaches out to diseased individual; takes off glove; impervious to pain or disease; Christlike look (hand reaching out; Christ visiting diseased) Pesthouse hospital or house built to accommodate or quarantine people with diseases painted to curve bad press Napoleon ordered people to be poisoned; some survived and spoked poorly of Napoleon JeanAugusteDominique Ingres Grande Odalisque 1814, Neoclassical obvious influence from the Venus of Urbino reclining nude eastern spin; peacock feathers; hookah; exotic fabrics Romanticism Shift from Neoclassicism to Romanticism=Shift from Reason to Feeling Romanticism refers to Emotion: all kinds Also, introducing darkness, nightmares, the grotesque, the insane… The Sublime: feelings of awe mixed with terror First introduced by Edmund Burke seen in landscape imagery; some images can be thrilling; example: lightning storm (can be beautiful, yet frightening) desire for freedom Henry Fuseli The Nightmare 1781, Romanticism exemplifies vivid imagination attempt to capture human subconscious demon lies over a woman William Blake writer and artist Ancient of Days 1794, Romanticism fusion of Romanticism and Neoclassicism idealized, classical, anatomical figure from Europe, a Prophecy Francisco Goya Spanish artist The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters from Los Caprichos 1798, Romanticism etching 8 by 5 inches Los Caprichos: The Caprices or The Impulses someone asleep over writing table (more than likely Goya); around him monsters loom overhead; owls and bats: symbolic of folly and ignorance when reason is suppress, there is an emergence of enlightenment sleep of reason produces monsters; imagination; new way of thinking Third of May, 1808 18141815, Romanticism Royal commission for Ferdinand VII French troops that initially invaded Spain; executed Spanish citizens Horrific image; unarmed figures; terrified figures; Christlike figure (martyr) Saturn Devouring One of His Children 18191823, Romanticism Goya’s health & mind began to fade; this image painted as part of Goya’s series painted from his farmhouse (Black Paintings discovered after his death, most likely for private use) Saturn: notion of time; Goya’s view on passage of time (dark image) Goya’s battle of growing old Theodore Gericault Romantic Renegade (antiestablishment artist) French artist; retained interest in heroic and classical epic stories of neoclassicism abolitionist Raft of the Medusa 18181819, Romanticism depicts actual event that took place off the coast of Africa ship called the Medusa that wrecked due to an incompetent captain 150 remaining passengers; raft drifted for 12 days; only 15 passengers left 8 months to complete jumbled bodies and anatomically correct diagonal line; moment when they find refuge black figure would have been a slave on this ship strong, energetic; epitome of strength Insane Woman 18221823, Romanticism Gericault studied “the insane” at insane hospitals mental disturbance on face Eugene Delacroix first photograph of an artist we see colorist Death of Sardanapalus 1827, Romanticism vivid colors Liberty Leading the People 1830, Romanticism actual event; July 1830 Revolution uprise against King Charles X woman leading these people; allegorical figure of liberty; barebreasted liberty Paris; right side in the background is Notre Dame Romantic Landscapes First emerged in the 19 century from interest in tourism due to Industrial Revolution How can landscapes be Romantic? Natural scenes that are emotional, spiritual “Artists participated in the spirit of the landscape, becoming translators of nature’s transcendent meanings”. Gardner’s Caspar David Friedrich Abbey in the Oak Forrest 1810, Romanticism perfect example of transcendental landscape funeral procession through Gothic ruins barren trees focus on mortality work of meditation Albert Bierstadt member of Hudson River School group of artists that painted scenes along Hudson River in New York painted many unchartered landscapes Among the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California 1868, Romanticism very famous work th Part 2: The 19 Century: The Sublime J.M.W. Turner Joseph Mallord William Turner The Slave Ship 1840, Romanticism turbulent, energized “the sublime” humbling man color; chaos; sun becomes engorged and flies across canvas remind us of our mortality Realism First developed in mid19 century France Stemmed from increasing interest in Industrial Revolution inspired science Artists began recording only what they saw Sights of everyday contemporary life The mundane, working class, laborers, peasants Gustave Courbet: “I have never seen an angel show me an angel, and I’ll paint one” referring to “academic painting” The Stone Breakers 1849, Realism copy of the original; original was destroyed in 1945 British bombing old man; young boy toil and pain are available to everyone working class members don’t matter within social structure Burial at Ornans 1849, Realism modeled after actual people from his hometown; his sisters 10 by 21 feet; scale made critics hate it ordinary subject matter; no real focal point lack of the sublime; no drama; no heroism JeanFrancois Millet The Gleaners 1857, Realism 3 peasant women gleaning (gathering of wheat after wheat has been reaped; take home scraps) anonymity figures are thrusted in the viewer’s face Honore Daumier printmaker published political newspapers within Paris Rue Transnonain 1834, Realism indicative of controversial career depict own personal feelings event that took place in 1834 (Massacre of 1834) French Guard killed by unknown origin troubling image; man in sleep clothes laying on child Lithograph: printmaking technique in which oilbased crayon is drawn directly on stone plate. Water is then wiped on the stone, followed by ink, which only adheres to crayon. A print is then made on paper. Daumier’s view of King Louis Phlippe I Louis resembled a “pear”; made an image of him turning into a pear Louis regurgitating citizens’ goods in another image Edouard Manet Most certainly a Realist, sometimes impressionist; sometimes neither Bridge between Realism and Impressionism would take works from old masters and manipulate them Le Dejeuner sur L’Herbe (Luncheon on the Grass) 1863, Realism landscape with seated figures; naked woman (Victorine Meurent makes eye contact with viewer) right man (Manet’s brother) flat style; thick, black contour lines Olympia 1863, Realism not exhibited until 2 years later more controversial Victorine Meruent; makes eye contact with viewer Venus of Urbino; seated upright black cat; black woman bringing flowers cat sexualizes scene; suggest wildness woman is maid; represents racial tensions depiction of a courtisane title is climax; Olympia is slang term for prostitute Raphael Judgment of Paris almost identical to Manet’s artwork Daumier’s opinion of the 1863 Salon The Salon of Venuses overwhelming nude figures Thomas Eakins American artist from Philadelphia The Gross Clinic 1875, Realism Dr. Gross accurate portrait; in stands were medical students remark on state of medicine early anesthetics of ether; patient has bone disease mother is hiding; looking frightened John Singer Sargent elitist portraitist modern people in modern context The Daughters of Edward Darley Boit 1882, Realism portrait of 4 daughters of Boit eldest in background; can’t see face PreRaphaelitism English artists group, organized in 1848 Outraged by the state of the world during Industrialization Wanted simpler, more beautiful times Their art focused on spirituality, idealism, and artisanship PreRaphaelite refers to the moralizing art made before Raphael Subject matter: moralizing scenes, literary scenesArthurian, Shakespeare, English poetry John Everett Millais One of the founders of the PreRaphaelites Brotherhood (PRB) Ophelia 1852, PreRaphaelitism Shakespearian character from Hamlet; ailed from a broken heart from Hamlet; mysteriously drowned in the river Elizabeth Siddal was the model got pneumonia for modeling so long in the tub Dante Gabrial Rossetti husband of Elizabeth Siddal founder of PRB painter and poet Beata Beatrix 1863, PreRaphaelitism painted after Elizabeth died while pregnant at age 32 due to opium overdose Beatrix taken to Heaven in a trance red dove: love and death; puts a poppy in hand: poppy is symbol of sleep, death, hypnosis Wizard of Oz; poppies given to make them sleepy; opium trance; poppies allow opium to be made
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