Unit 1 Notes
Unit 1 Notes MC 101 - Intro to Mass Communications
Popular in Introduction to Mass Communications
Popular in Communication Sciences and Disorders
This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Matt Owens on Monday December 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MC 101 - Intro to Mass Communications at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Fei Qiao in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Mass Communications in Communication Sciences and Disorders at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 12/14/15
Matt Owens 912015 MC101 Global Media and Media Framing Impressions 0 Why do we need to rely on media to obtain information about other count es Stereotypes o Levy Stroessner amp Dweck 1998 Stereotypes De ned as quotbeliefs about the personal attributes of a group quotPeople often make extreme trait and evaluative judgments of a group even on the basis of sparse information about the group members Media Framing o What is framing o Entan 1993 p 52 0 quotTo frame is to select some aspects of a perceived reality and make them more salient in a communicating text in such a way as to promote a particular problem de nition causal interpretation moral evaluation andor treatment recommendation for the item described 0 Come to a conclusion based on a portion of the information available 0 Zhai Tian Tian Incident 0 Background On April 15th 2010 Zhai Tiantian quarreled with his professor about a disagreement of academic stuff but no physical contact happened Zhai Tiantian said something like quotburn campus downquot and professor reported him as a terrorist and he was arrested 0 Chinese news report uses photo in news report of Zhai in suit in professional photo Doesn t give appearance of a criminal 0 US news report uses mug shotphoto that shows him as a more menacing personcriminal Reporter Biases Selective revealing or suppression of information 0 Different angles of issues reported by different sources 0 Do you think news reports are objective No they can t be 100 objective because they have their own opinions and they do what they must for ratings purposes 0 Or framing and objectivity can coexist or not Not really if one remains objective they present all the information and don t draw conclusions based on small amounts of evidence which is exactly what framing is 0 What s your de nition of quotobjective news reportquot 0 Three things to be objective 0 Being nonpartisan by not advocating a position on a controversial issue 0 Maintaining value neutrality by stating facts without making vaue judgments 0 Not distorting facts and understanding Journalistic Truth 0 Functional Truth 0 The best truth at the time but subject to further investigation and change nitia death tos may rise after more time has passed Happening Truth 0 Actual events that happened 0 Story Truth 0 Molding or reshaping of the quothappening truthquot 0 What is more important 0 Happening Truth Final facts after the investigation has concluded Most accurate New School of Thoughts Impossible to achieve objectivity You should disclose your biases and write the story from your biased perspective 0 What do you think 0 Helps readers compare biases but what about those that don t think they re biased Consumers39 Biases Do you consume news form the same source 0 We typically get all of our news from 1 or 2 sources Selective Exposure 0 Campbell Martin amp Fabos 2005 quotSelective Exposure means that people look for information and interpret it through their personal filters p 155 quotBecause people rely on family friends and surrounding environment for information essentially utilize de facto selectivity for supportive materialsquot p 155 o For news consumption A liberal seeks news from MSNBC A conservative seeks news from Fox News 0 Selective exposure causes Racial Prejudice quotBlacks are perceived by Whites to violate the work ethic selfreliance impulse control and obedience to authorityquot Melican amp Dixon 2008 p155 Mean World Syndrome World is a dangerous place 0 Makes the world seem more dangerous than it actually is by only seeing baddangerous news Deepening Stereotypes Using the same news source furthers the belief of stereotypes portrayed by that source 0 Credibility of Selective Exposure Mainstreaming quotThose whose life experiences are more discrepant different from the world of television are the most likely to be in uenced by the television messagesquot Shrum amp Bischak 2001 p 190 Resonance quotThose people whose life experiences are more congruent similar with the experiences of the television world will be most affected by the televisionquot Shrum amp Bischak 2001 p 191 0 Editors Side of Bias Gatekeeping Theory 0 What goes in and out of an agency Somebody has to decide whether and how to pass information on to another person or people International News Channel 0 If you were the news editor for an international news source which 2 of these stories would you pick 0 N1 News story 1 Texas Bull Fighting 0 N2 International Terror Issues 0 N3 UN Discussions 0 N4 Religious Abuse on International Community 0 The other stories that you don t choose are discarded and the information is not passed on to the general population 0 Deceptive News In 1999 a reporter for the Owensboro Kentucky Messenger Inquirer fabricated ve columns about her life and death struggle with cancer when in fact she had AIDS Framing can lead to deceptive news Matt Owens 82715 MC101 Global Media Blood PSA Public Service Announcement 0 Use to evoke fear in order to promote an item FourTheo es o Authoritarian Theory 0 Oldest theory of the press 0 The role of the press is to be a servant of the government 0 Country is at the highest level 0 Belief that without a state government people will return to a primitive state Questions to think about Is the US Federal Communications Act authoritarian Somewhat authoritarian What about restrictions on pornography Defamation Military secrets 0 Okay to some extent Libertarian Theory 0 Free Press Government should not interfere with the media 0 quotMarketplace of ideasquot Everybody s opinion matters 0 Truth defeats falsehoods 3 things crucial to credibility Message 0 Source Memum O 0 Neoliberalism amp Social Responsibility Theories o NeoLibertarian quotNot everyone shall speak but that everything worth saying shall be saidquot Government role is to facilitate the freedom of speech 0 Some government intervention is necessary Media should represent the interest of the people more important than the interest of the speaker 0 Social Responsibility quotThe media should provide the citizens with the sort of raw material and disinterested guidance they need to govern themselvesquot p77 News media should be more audience oriented and less political biased Ombudsmen A person who investigates and attempts to resolve complains and problems Representsprotects the interest of the audiencepeople Unbiased Questions to consider 0 Do you think the development of technology will improve the media responsibility or decrease their responsibility 0 Communist Theory 0 Calls for government ownership and operation of media not just government control 0 Media serve as propaganda vehicle for bureaucrats to protect their power and continually rede ne the meaning of the vague constitutional role of the press p131 How Will the Government Type Effect the Media 0 Authoritarian o Libertarian NeoLibertarian Communist Matt Owens 932015 MC101 What is Mass Media About Nielson Ratings 0 Measurements of how many people watch a certain program 0 Rating Number of people watching a certain program number of people who own TVs For example if a show has 34 adults 1849 rating meaning that 34 of the adults 1849 who own a television watched the program 30Second Advertising Spot 0 You can see the popularity of a TV show based on the price of a 30 second advertising spot during that show s airtime Imitation Successful shows are commonly imitated due to their massive success 0 Talk shows Tonight show oldest running one in America Similar shows 0 Ellen Conan Daily Show Jimmy Kimmel Late Show 0 Movies 0 Why do they imitate each other 0 Institutional lsomorphism Boxenbaum and Jonsson 2008 p78 0 quotOrganizations that share the same environment tend to take on similar forms are ef ciencyseeking organization seek the optimal 39 t with their environment Marketing environment is competitive Trying to learn what succeeds Chris Anderson Long Tail 0 Mass media quotbecoming less massquot 0 Becoming more generic Scarcity Effect 0 Because of mass number of media sources we miss out on the majority of them 0 Mostly see the popular ones Cultural Imperialism One culture has a great in uence on many other cultures 0 American culture has a huge in uence across the globe GAFA used to represent American culture in France 0 Google 0 Apple 0 Facebook 0 Amazon Oligopoly represents America s Media Culture Issues to Consider News becomes secondary to the business 0 Content becomes secondary to the sales Synergy eg ESPN promotes sporting events on ABC 0 Vertical Integration