Week 9 Notes
Week 9 Notes History 110A
Cal State Fullerton
Popular in World Civilization to 16th Century
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Veronica Barragan on Saturday April 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 110A at California State University - Fullerton taught by Stefan Chrissanthos in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see World Civilization to 16th Century in History at California State University - Fullerton.
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Date Created: 04/02/16
4 century/300’s AD Christianity Pax Romana 31BC-180 AD Trajan 117AD Anarchy 180-284 Diocletian 284-305 Constantine I 306-337 Maxentius Milvian Bridge 312 Milan Edict 313 Constantinople 330 Julian 361-363 Ambrose 374-398 Theodosius I 391 Frigidius 394 The Century of Christianity A. Christianity a. Became the official language of th3 Roman Empire b. Became a major world religion B. Pax Romana a. The roman Peace b. Lasted from 31 BC until 180 AD, it was the Golden Age of the Roman Empire. c. During this time Rome reached its greatest territorial extent C. Trajan a. In 117AD, the emperor Trajan, conquered the Parthian empire in the East, he made it all the way to the shores of the Persian Gulf b. Trajan wanted to keep going east to conquer India c. Decided that he was too old, so he and the roman army turned back to the west and Trajan died that same year on the way home. d. No roman emperor made it so far east again because his successors decided that the Roman Empire was too big and therefore too difficult to defend. e. The Romans voluntarily gave up the lands Trajan had conquered in the East f. In 117 AD Rome reached its Zenith and then shrunk territorial wise almost immediately. D. Anarchy a. In 180 AD, the Pax Romana ends and a long period of Anarchy begins b. It lasted just over a century, from 180-284AD c. It was such a bad period because there were almost constant civil wars, which meant roman generals fighting each other to see who would be emperor. d. The Romans faced massive attacks from the outside. e. The Germans were Indo-European people f. The Germans loved to fight, so on a fairly regular basis they would go into roman territory and kill people, destroy stuff, and steal stuff. g. Also faced a new threat from the East, The Persians were back. E. The Sasanid Empire a. The Persians defeated the Parthians and then established the Sasanid Empire b. The new Persians consider themselves the successors to the old Persians, they still had the same religion c. Believed their god wanted them to reconquer all those parts that had been part of the Persian Empire. d. This was a problem because a lot of those lands were owned by Rome e. The Persians would attack Rome and were in an on and off war for 400 years f. Constant wars led to a breakdown in Roman economy as well as a decline in the population. g. During this period, for the first time ever a Roman emperor was killed in battle by a foreign enemy, and also a Roman Emperor was captured by a Roman Army. h. He was captured by the Persians and was not treated well. i. During this period Rome celebrated its 1000 anniversary, but feared Rome would not last much longer. F. Diocletian a. In 284. Diocletian became Rome’s ne emperor b. Became emperor in the usual manner, he joined the army, and thanks to his great abilities quickly rose up through the ranks, eventually became a general, he then assassinated the Roman Emperor and defeated a number of Roman generals in battle to secure his place in the throne. c. Once he captures the throne he manages to survive, he rules from 284-305, longest reign since Augustus d. He did everything he could to help Rome, but by far the greatest thing he did was reestablish peace, stopped civil wars and defended Rome from outside attacks. e. The economy recovers ad the population begins to rise, Diocletian saves Rome f. In 305 he did something that had not been done ever before, he retires, voluntarily gave up absolute power. g. Almost immediately a civil war breaks out. G. Constantine I a. He was one of the generals fighting to replace Diocletian b. General in the Roman army c. In 306 his soldiers proclaimed him emperor and during the next six years he fought it out with other generals d. finally after six years of war only two generals are left, Constantine and Maxentius e. They fight a war to see who will win H. The battle of the Milvian Bridge a. The day before the battle, Constantine is in his camp with his soldiers, he was nervous about the impending battle, if he loses the battle he loses his power and most likely his life b. He was in his camp and was praying, praying to nobody in particular. c. According to Constantine, an incredible sight appeared in the sky, a sight seen by Constantine and his men, up in the sky they saw a huge flaming cross and on the cross was written ”in this sign you will conquer” d. It was an incredible sign, but he had no idea what it meant, but that night while he slept, he was visited in his dram by Jesus Christ. e. In the dream Jesus explains all about the religion of Christianity, the Christian god, who Jesus was and why he was important, and told Constantine to put the sign of the cross on his men’s shields and carry the cross into battle. f. Jesus promised that if he did this he would be victorious. g. Constantine does this and wins the battle of the Milvian Bridge, Maxentius is killed. h. So important because Christianity had never been used in war before, Christians had been pacifists. i. More importantly as a result of this victory Constantine is emperor and a year later issues the edict of Milan I. Edict of Milan a. The law of Milan. b. This edict was so important because it granted religious freedom to everyone in the Roman Empire. c. The Roman had always been very tolerant of others religion. Since its inception 300 years prior, Christians had been persecuted by the Roman state. d. Constantine grants freedom even to the Christians. e. This was the first time ever that Christianity was legal f. Once legalized it becomes more popular g. About 10% of the population was Christian before it was legal. h. Constantine never really converted until his deathbed, but he did raise his three sons as Christians. J. Julian a. The one roman emperor who was not a Christian after Constantine. b. He ruled from 361-363 c. Julian was a pagan, which meant he worshipped all the Roman gods d. He does not last very long, he is killed in battle, but his brief reign did have a huge impact because it served as a warning to the Christians. e. After Julian, Christians became far more militant, believing that religion toleration was no longer acceptable, other religions must be stamped out. K. Ambrose a. Leader of the militant Christians, believed all other religions should disappear b. Bishop of Milan from 374-3984 c. Believed non-Christians were literally sick and that they either had to be converted or killed. d. He believed that if paganism was not stamped out it would infect and eventually destroy the Roman Empire. L. Theodosius I a. In 391, the Roman emperor, Theodosius I, bowed in to pressure from Ambrose and other militant people, he proclaimed Christianity the official and only religion of the Roman Empire, all other religions were outlawed and it was now time for the Christians to prosecute everyone else. b. The pagans tried one more time to stop the Christians. M. Frigidius a. In 394, the battle of the Frigidius River was fought. b. It was between Pagans and Christians c. Initially, it was going against the Christians, but then an incredibly strong wind kicked up and blew into the faces of the Pagan soldiers, and they could not see. d. The Christians believed that God sent this wind and that is why they won this battle. e. The Roman Empire would be Christian and was the beginning of Christianity becoming a major world religion N. Constantinople a. Constantine established a new capital for the Roman empire, Constantinople b. He called the city new Rome, everyone else called it the city of Constantine, or Constantinople. c. Constantine built this city on the side of an old Greek city 5 century/400’s AD Huns Hun÷ Southern => China Northern=>Black=>Rome =>White=> India =>Persia w. Chin 317 Visigoths 376 Adrianople 378 Rome 410 Romulus Augustulus 476 Byzantine Gupta 480 Sassanid Empire 484 A. The century of the Huns a. Barbarian tribe either destroyed or negatively impacted all major civilizations during this century. b. They were a classic pastoralist tribe c. Originated in East Asia, North of China d. For centuries the Huns had caused the Chinese all sorts of trouble i. They would invade kill people, destroy stuff, and steal stuff. e. In 91AD, the Chinese were able to inflict a crushing military defeat on the Huns f. As a result the original Hun tribe broke apart. g. First broke apart into southern and northern Huns h. The southern Huns were captured by the Chinese who would then force them to come and live inside China. i. Some of the Huns did escape, those are the Northern Huns i. The Northern Huns start moving West, and eventually split into two tribes 1. The Black Huns and the White Huns ii. Black Huns keep going west and eventually end up in Europe and the Roman Empire. iii. White Huns eventually turn south and would move first into India and then into Persia. B. Southern Huns a. The southern Huns in China, the never assimilated, they kept the Hun identity. i. They became more civilized, but they still loved war. b. In 317 they rose up into rebellion against the ruling dynasty and they overthrew the western Chin dynasty. c. As a result, China was plunged into anarchy, that would last exactly 300 years C. Northern Huns a. Black Huns i. By 376, they make it to Europe and invade. ii. There were dozens of Barbaric tribes, mostly German. iii. The Huns bump into a barbaric tribe known as the Visigoths 1. The Visigoths could not stand up to the Huns. 2. The Huns defeat the Visigoths and they are forced to flee 3. The Visigoths flee South and into Rome 4. They beg the Romans for protection against the Huns and the Romans accept. 5. The Visigoths were treated so badly by the Roman authorities that just two years later they rose up in rebellion against Rome. 6. The Romans send an army to crush the Visigoths and the battle of Adrianople begins. b. White Huns i. D. The Battle of Adrianople a. In a huge upset the Visigoths defeated the Roman Army b. This battle is so important because it marks the beginning of the Roman Empire, specifically the Western part of the empire. c. In the East they speak Greek and in the west they speak Latin d. In this time most people were in the East. e. Almost all the cities and every big city was in the East. i. Almost all the wealth was in the East, the East was generally much easier to defend because the East has shorter boarders and there were more natural geographic obstacles. ii. The East had a new capital, Constantinople. iii. Constantinople was impregnable, could not be taken by enemy attack. f. The Eastern Empire was strong enough to defend itself, but not strong enough to help the west. g. Adrianople is so significant because Rome is now at a point where they cannot recover from a defeat E. Visigoths a. In 410 AD the Visigoths wonder into Italy and capture Rome, this was the first time in exactly 800yers that Rome had been captured by a foreign enemy. b. They eventually roam into Spain and the Visigoths decide to settle down. i. They establish an independent kingdom in Spain, this the first time ever that the Roman Empire lost territory. ii. When other barbaric tribes heard of the success they began coming over he boarders to invade. iii. All the tribes fight it out to see who could get what from the dying Western Empire. iv. By 476 the Roman Empire in the west had ceased to exist and is replaced by German Barbaric kingdoms. 1. They plunged Western Europe into a very long dark age that would last about 600 years. F. Romulus Augustulus a. The last Roman emperor in the west. b. He is kicked out by the German tribes in 476 G. Byzantine Empire a. The Eastern part of the Roman Empire b. The people in this empire still called themselves Romans. c. This empire would last another 1000 years and would not go through a dark age d. They are the reason why most cultural stuff survived. H. White Huns a. Gupta i. The white Huns invade India in 480 and destroy the Gupta empire ii. India is plunged into a long dark age. b. Sassanid i. In 484 the white Huns invade Persia. However, though a Persian king was killed in battle, the Persians did manage to survive. ii. Persia was the only great empire that manages to stay intact. I. The classical world has now come to an end
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