IS 2054 UN & Terrorism
IS 2054 UN & Terrorism IS 2054
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by windwalkerr on Saturday April 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to IS 2054 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Courtney Thomas in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Intro to World Politics in International Studies at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
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Date Created: 04/02/16
UN 3.28.16 Terrorism 3.30.16 Terrorism Continued 4.1.16 Failure of League of Nations League of nations was established after WWI to make future wars impossible but it lacked effective power o Both bodies League Assembly & League Council could make recommendations but not binding resolutions o All recommendations had to be unanimous o No mechanism for coordinating military or economic action against states o Lack of participation by Great Power (US) What Wilson & many others didn’t understand is that many European countries were angry and wanted revenge or retribution. United Nations Established in aftermath of WWII Legitimacy derived from universal membership o All sovereign states are invited to participate Mandate includes o Security o Economic & social development o Protection of human rights o Environmental sustainability New threat: nuclear warfare UN Charter UN charter is treaty ratified by all member states Established 4 purposes: o To maintain international peace & security o To develop friendly relations among nations (states) o To cooperate in solving international problems & in promoting respect for human rights o To be center for harmonizing actions of nations (states) Primary Challenge UN is institution comprised of sovereign independent states o Tension btw state sovereignty & individual rights has been subject of constant debate & disagreement o Sovereignty often limits UN actions Protecting sovereignty is the most important goal o Article 2(7): nothing contained in present charter shall authorize UN to intervene in matters which are essentially w/in domestic jurisdiction of any state o BUT UN has moral standing in international community UN support for program, action or intervention often provides legitimacy Sovereignty will win over intervention in the name of preventing war UN Organs: **will need to match these on the test** Security Council UN 3.28.16 Terrorism 3.30.16 Terrorism Continued 4.1.16 Security Council Designed to promote international peace & security 15 members at all times o 5 permanent members w/ veto power: US, France, GB, Russia, China o Called the P5 o Many calls for reform! Add new permanent members w/ veto power Eliminate veto power and/or permanent membership 10 nonpermanent members o Measures are binding & must be passed by 9 vote majority Range of options o Principles for settlement o Mediation o Peacekeeping mission o Economic sanctions/arms embargo o “all necessary means” General Assembly “Parliament of nations” Each state has one vote o 2/3 majority required for major recommendations (admission of new members/budget) o Majority required for most recommendations May tackle any issue o “blood diamonds” o Space race o Sustainable development o Migration Opinion leader in international relations/world politics o Very good at drafting issues to discuss o Put treaties out that many countries choose to jump on Secretariat Led by secretary general Administrative/executive body of the UN o Research functions o Bureaucratic bodylacks power/right of initiative Can “bring situations that are likely to lead to breakdown of international peace & security” to attention of Security Council Economic & Security Council Coordinates work of UN agencies w/ Secretariat relative to economic & social work Consults w/ NGOs Oversees UN system o Specialized agencies Independent; selfcontained politically & financially UN 3.28.16 Terrorism 3.30.16 Terrorism Continued 4.1.16 o Programs & funds Managed by General Assembly & funded on voluntary basis UN organizations UN is comprised of number of specialized organizations, programs, & funds including o International Labor Organization (ILO) o Food & Agriculture Organization (FAO) o World Health Organization (WHO) o United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) o United Nations Development Program (UNDP) Trusteeship Council Created in early 1950s to provide international supervision for 11 trust territories administered by 7 member states Goal: to transition to independence & selfgov’t Accomplished goal by 1994 Now meets as necessary Members: US, France, GB, China, Russia International Court of Justice 15 judges elected by General Assembly & Security Council Participation is voluntary but once a state agrees to participate it is bound by court’s decisions Provides advisory opinions to UN agencies upon request Terrorism 3.30.16 UN Peacekeeping UN can send a UN peacekeeping force under UN command to stand btw parties to dispute after ceasefire o Can only use its weapons in self defense o Established w/ consent at host state o Does not include focuses from major powers Rwanda, 1994, and problems UN can also send peace enforcement designed to achieve humanitarian ends o Deployed when order has collapsed w/in states (civil war) & international conflicts o i.e. massive earthquake in a capital city and normal response team was unavailable. UN can send peace squad until civilian establishment can surface UN peacekeeping force was not in Rwanda to stop a genocide. o Their instructions: Act as escorts for diplomatic groups Facilitate repatriation But when killings started, they were powerless. UN wouldn’t let them, and refused over and over to change its peacekeeping rules. UN 3.28.16 Terrorism 3.30.16 Terrorism Continued 4.1.16 When one important guy was killed, mission changed under Romeo Dallaire: Evacuate some people (French, German, British, US citizens from country), and then get the UN out of Rwanda. 60 days later, a million people are dead. Romeo Dallaire helped create R2P o Responsibility to protect Events W/in States UN increasingly responds to events w/in sovereign states o Political & civil rights o Food, water, health care, shelter o Ethnic cleansing/genocide o Civil war or unrest Justification: lack of internal justice endangers international order o Hotly contested Threatens peace Statehood & sovereignty: If you violate the rules, you lose both o UN’s primary mission is still to defer to sovereignty of independent states o BUT is statehood conditional upon respect for human rights? Most critical environmental issues internationally: Island building Climate change Deforestation Pollution Overfishing Extraction of resources Poaching Access to water Desertification Carbon emissions Loss of farmland Water wars Loss of plant & animal species Loss of biodiversity Genetic modifications Global Problem Environmental destruction is a global problem requiring global solutions o Not an international problem o Closely associated w/ globalization, development, & races to the bottom of regulatory frameworks Threatens environmental principles o Relocation of industry UN 3.28.16 Terrorism 3.30.16 Terrorism Continued 4.1.16 o Better standards of living o Increased access to income o Increased waste & pollution o Threat of neoliberal policies re: resources o Strain on farmland, water resources, air quality, etc The other side Yet globalization also offers some potential solutions o Economic development & population control o Incentives to price externalities into cost of goods o Innovative approaches to environmental sustainability o Growth of the “think globally” Tragedy of the Commons Resources that are held in common in absence of governance, regulation & conservation are often abused & exploited o Oceans, space, air, atmosphere No global gov’t but global GOVERNANCE o Enforcement? o Funding? o Free riding? o State actors vs non state actors? Series of Wake up calls Bhopal Chernobyl Acid rain DDT Exxon Valdez oil spill Policy Frameworks Prior to 1972: a few international conventions but primarily at periphery of politics o International Whaling convention 1972 forward: o UN conference on the Human environment & UN Environment Program o Establishment of environmental agencies by numerous national gov’ts o Explosion of environmental NGOs o Increased attention of TNCs (Bhopal) o Scientific research (gov’t agencies, NGOs, universities, etc) o World meteorological organization, international union for the conservation of nature, etc – need for public funding Tensions emerged Sustainable development During 90s & 2000s poverty eradication became global priority UN 3.28.16 Terrorism 3.30.16 Terrorism Continued 4.1.16 o But clean water, sanitation, agricultural improvements & development often brought concerned about environmental sustainability How would global community eradicate poverty while promoting environmental sustainability o Two approaches: bottomup & topdown Capacity building: one of most important ways to see the developing world get better at sustainability. European countries recognize these needs, most do o The US is the outlier. They are the only country that have refused to sign on to basic environmental regulations. State sanctioned/sponsored terror Terrorism Defined The use of violence by substate groups to inspire fear by attacking civilians and/or symbolic targets for purposes such as drawing widespread attention to a grievance, provoking a severe response, or wearing down their opponent’s moral resolve to affect political change o It is not just violence; it is political Whose Terrorist? Terrorism is a strategy undertaken by structurally weak minorities against structurally more powerful political agents & institutions o Often in name of extremist ideology Groups resort to terrorism rather than other forms of political violence because their objectives lack broad appeal Goal is some form of political change Terrorists often disregard the ‘rules” warfare & conflict o Use of violence against noncombatants & “soft” targets o Washington during the Revolutionary war Legitimacy Often considered more legitimate if tactics conform to rules of “just war” tradition Challenges notion of state’s monopoly on violence But groups that use terrorist tactics reject legitimacy of state or its gov’t & claim that their efforts are morally justified Are their goals democratic or nondemocratic? Are targets domestic or international? Subnational to Global Terrorism has been around for centuries Early terrorists operated against domestic targets o Their impact was limited to single state Transnational terrorism emerged in mid1900s o Expansion of commercial air travel o Availability of televised new coverage UN 3.28.16 Terrorism 3.30.16 Terrorism Continued 4.1.16 o Broad political & ideological interests among extremists that intersected around a common cause Linkages to Globalization Technologies associated w/ globalization are also associated w/ terrorism o Communication o Organization o Propaganda o Transportation o Banking & finance Role of Air Travel Air travel allowed terrorists from one country to attack in another o Lack of airport security measures Hijacking was both effective & relatively easy o States acquiesced to demands > encouraged tactic o Often demanded money release of prisoners, etc o Learned from one another Led to implementation of numerous security measures o Decades before we’d see similar measures in the US o These people are not messing around portacaths & teddy bears Pan Am Flight 103 Crashed in Lockerbie Scotland in 1988 killing 270 people Role of Libya Bombing that brought terrorism into American living rooms o First time that international terrorism became a reality for a lot of Americans Role of Television Television provided much broader audience for terrorists Increased awareness of terrorist motivations & objectives Decade of Terrorism: 19801990 Suicide bombings Hijackings 3 trends o Fewer attacks that were more deadly & more indiscriminate o Increasing sophistication of attacks Types of Terrorist Groups Left wing Right wing Ethnonationalist/separatist o In many cases, terrorist wing of this group has a lot of legitimacy Legitimate concerns & grievances UN 3.28.16 Terrorism 3.30.16 Terrorism Continued 4.1.16 Religious/sacred Ethnonationalist: Tamil tigers Ethnonationalist movement in Sri lanka that used terror to fight against the gov’t Recognized as terrorists by many gov’ts but as liberation movement by many others Tactics used by gov’t against tigers gave movement more legitimacy Pioneers in suicide bombings Accused of ethnic cleansing, use of child soldiers, arms dealing, piracy, & other atrocities/criminal acts Winners write history: Tigers were defeated in 2009 o Subjective to reeducation projects o Sri Lankan gov’t has sent in army to kill entire villages Right Wing: OK City 1995 domestic terrorist attack in US killing 168 Right wing terrorist attack on gov’t of US Questioned legitimacy of US gov’t Ruby Ridge & Waco Role of the Turner Diaries o Blueprint for 2 American revolution Threshold of violence; deaths of children o Represents when you go too far o If you cross threshold, you lose your supporters o The bomber lost his support because he killed so many children Left wing: Ecoterrorism: #1 domestic terrorist threat in the US per FBI Leftwing movement Doesn’t usually target civilians, but it targets property Goal: target as much property as possible in order to cause mass damage & stop research on animals Many different groups Animal Liberation Front, Earth Liberation Front, etc Violence and/or sabotage committed in support of ecological, environmental, or animal rights causes Primarily property damage Often against corporations Tree spiking, arson, bombing animal release, etc Eye of the beholder? Fighting Terrorism National measures o Airport security o Antiterror laws o Special counterterrorism task forces & LEOs UN 3.28.16 Terrorism 3.30.16 Terrorism Continued 4.1.16 International measures o More difficult o International civil aviation organization o Interpol: Public safety & terrorism subdirectorate o War on Terror (Coalition of the Willing) o Human Rights Watch (terrorists & states that fight terrorism)
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