Week Four Psy 246
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by KatieAlbritton on Wednesday December 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 246 at University of North Carolina - Wilmington taught by Dr. Ingram in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Personality in Psychlogy at University of North Carolina - Wilmington.
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Date Created: 12/16/15
Week Four Notes: Gordon Allport and Raymond Cattell Katie Albritton Study Soup Gordon Allport Taught the first personality psychology course Also associated with Humanistic Psychology Henry Oddburt Identified 17,953 words in the English language that describe personality traits Gordon and Henry worked together Lexical Hypothesis An explanation that has to do with words A proposed explanation that has to do with the words in a language So many words for personality traits in the English language means talking about personality is important to English speakers Predicting the person's actions “Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to the environment.” Allport's definition of personality Personality Hereditary X environment Temperament Innate emotional aspect of personality Environment affects personality, which affects behavior Traits are the fundamental unit of personality Qualities of a normal mature adult Extension of the sense of self Warm human interaction Emotional security Realistic perception of your skills and assignments Selfobjectification: insight and humor Unifying philosophy of life Trait A theoretical construct Describing a basic dimension of personality Allport's views on traits The primary unit of personality Consistent Enduring Unique to each of us Give us the ability to respond to what happens to us Allport Two fundamentals of personality psychology Our personalities are consistent over time Our personalities interact with the environment to produce our behavior Situations do matter Different types of Traits Central traits Perhaps a half dozen traits that best describe a person Secondary traits Traits that reflect consistency but that don't affect as much behavior as do central traits Cardinal traits A trait that is so pervasive that it dominates nearly all of a person's behavior Eponomous: Trait synonymous with person Quixotic: Foolishly impractical Ex. Kanye West → Narcissism Functional Autonomy Functional: Relating to a function, serving a purpose Autonomy: Independence, freedom, the state of being selfdirected We develop behaviors as consequences of our traits Functional Autonomy It doesn't matter how you develop a trait, you maintain that trait because it does something for you in the present Proprium A person's sense of self or ego The striving part of our being that gives us intentionality and direction Allport on religion's role in personality Extrinsic Religious Orientation Using religion for selfish purposes Friendship, status, comfort Intrinsic Religious Orientation Incorporating religious values into one's own belief system Loving others, doing good things for their own sake rather than for personal gain Assumption: Because religion preaches love, it should reduce prejudice Research results: People who attend church are more prejudiced than those who do not attend church Explanation? People who use religion for selfish purposes (extrinsic) are more racially prejudiced People who have an intrinsic orientation are more prejudiced against the LGBTQIA community Raymond Cattell (19051998) Factor Analysis Statistical method used by Eysenck, Tellegen 16 Personality Factor Test Theories o fluid and crystallized intelligence Largely responsible for use of the factor analysis method Cattell CultureFair Intelligence Test Intelligence Crystallized Intelligence Knowledge, achievement, information you have acquired Fluid Intelligence Innate ability, abstract idea of effectiveness of how your brain works Personality “Personality is that which permits a prediction of what a person will do in a given situation.” Cattell 16 PF Test 16 traits (factors) Fundamental traits of personality Warmth Reasoning Dominance Emotional Stability Sensitivity Rule Consciousness Vigilance Social Boldness Abstractness Privateness Apprehension Openness to change Tension Self Reliance Perfectionism Liveliness Five SecondOrder Factors Extraversion Stability Self Control Accommodating/Independence Receptivity/ Toughmindedness The Big Five: NEO Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness Paul Costa and Robert McCrae NEOPIR, then NEOPI3 Current version 30 scales, 8 items each, 5 point scale NEOFFI Shorter 5 scales, 12 items each