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Earth 120: Week 2 Note - The Universe

by: alicekhanh

Earth 120: Week 2 Note - The Universe ERTH 120

Marketplace > Santa Ana College > Earth Science > ERTH 120 > Earth 120 Week 2 Note The Universe
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About this Document

This note contains the summary of chapter 23 + chapter 24 - The Universe (included also Stars and Galaxies) [from the book "Earth Science" of Tarbuck"]
Phys Earth/Space Systems
Joanna Fantozzi
Class Notes
Earth Science
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by alicekhanh on Saturday April 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ERTH 120 at Santa Ana College taught by Joanna Fantozzi in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Phys Earth/Space Systems in Earth Science at Santa Ana College.

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Date Created: 04/02/16
Chapter 23 + 24: The Universe 1.  The Universe  Ancients thought the Universe was geocentric (Earth at center)  In the Renaissance, they thought it was heliocentric (sun at center)  Everything that is known about the universe beyond our solar system has  come from the analysis of the radiation emitted or reflected by the distant objects  The Doppler Effect is the apparent change in wavelength of radiation  caused by the relative motions of the source and observer  Most galaxies exhibit a red Doppler shift, which means they are all  moving away from us and the Universe is expanding!  Formation of the Universe is now explained by the Big Bang theory   All mass and energy started in a single point   Exploded ~13.7 Ga and has been expanding ever since   Current estimates predict an ever­expanding, or open, universe 2.  Galaxies  Galaxies are collections of interstellar matter, stars, and stellar remnants  that are gravitationally bound  Spiral galaxy  Barred spiral galaxy  Elliptical galaxy  Irregular galaxy 3.  Star  Every star moves through the stages of stellar evolution  Birth  o Start with a region of space filled with dust and gas  o Attractive forces pull in more dust and gas and the vast cloud  transformed to a disk shape  Protostar  o Fusion of hydrogen begins to form helium ­ star “ignites”  Main­sequence stage  o Stars experience minimal changes in size and energy  o Stars age at different rates ­ large stars use fuel faster  Red giant stage  o Star’s surface cools and becomes red  o Eventually all fuel is used  Burnout and death ­ final stage depends on mass  o Low­mass star (<0.5 solar mass)   Red giant collapses into a white dwarf o High­mass star (>8 solar masses)   Supernova explosion   Becomes a neutron star or black hole  Star brightness is controlled by size, temperature, and distance  The Hertzsprung­Russell diagram shows the relationship between  brightness and temperature 4.  Our Sun  Our Sun is just one of 200 billion stars that make up the Milky Way


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