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Module 4 Notes

by: NotetakerS

Module 4 Notes ANP200

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Module #4 lecture notes I have created by myself.
Navigating Another Culture
A. Quan
Class Notes
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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by NotetakerS on Wednesday December 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANP200 at Michigan State University taught by A. Quan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 238 views. For similar materials see Navigating Another Culture in General Science at Michigan State University.


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Date Created: 12/16/15
Module  4 Basic  Adaptation  Issues  when  Navigating  other  Cultures Adapting  to  Different  Living  Conditions Health  matters Staying  healthy  is  important • Many  cultural  navigators  will  find  themselves  in  places  where  food,   environment,  and  medical  care  are  different  from  what  they  are  accustomed   to.  Although  these  variables  most  likely  do  not  directly  affect  your   relationships  with  people,  your  ability  to  adapt  to  a  different  environment  will   be  better  if  you  are  healthy.  In  addition,  knowing  local  systems  and  attitudes   towards  health  issues  will  help  you  stay  healthy  or  to  deal  with  possible   illnesses. Things  to  do  before  you  leave  for  another  country • But  ideally,  if  you  plan  to  travel  to  a  different  country,  there  are  several  things   you  should  do  before  leaving  your  home  country  to  stay  healthy  and  to  be   prepared  in  case  you  get  sick.  The  key  ones  are: ○ Immunizations § Before  you  leave,  it’s  advisable  to  research  necessary   immunizations  and  special  health  concerns  related  to  where  you   are  going.  Advance  preparation  is  often  essential;  many   immunizations  must  be  started  6  or  more  weeks  before  you  leave,   and  insurance  must  be  purchased  in  advance. The  U.S.  government’s  Centers  for  Disease  Control  (CD wCe)b  site  is  a   ○ good  starting  point  to  help  you  prepare  for  medical  and  health  issues   while  traveling.   § Specifically  the  U.S.  CDC  travel  website  with  information  on   immunizations  and  health  conditions  abroad,  food  and  water   concerns,  recommendations  for  travelers  with  special  needs  such  as   pregnancy  or  disabilities,  children. ○ Health  and  emergency  medical  evacuation  insurance § If  you  have  health  insurance,  check  if  your  medical  insurance  will   pay  for  medical  costs  outside  of  your  country.  A  very  basic  aspect  of   navigating  another  culture  involves  preparing  for  unexpected  health   emergencies. ○ Depending  on  your  circumstances,  you  may  wish  to  consiermergency   medical  evacuation  insurance ,  which  pays  for  air  travel  back  to  a  medical   facility  in  your  country  in  case  of  a  serious  health  emergency. ○ Take  health  care  supplies navigating  another  culture  involves  preparing  for  unexpected  health   emergencies. ○ Depending  on  your  circumstances,  you  may  wish  to  consiermergency   medical  evacuation  insurance ,  which  pays  for  air  travel  back  to  a  medical   facility  in  your  country  in  case  of  a  serious  health  emergency. ○ Take  health  care  supplies § Medical  care  systems  can  be  adequate  if  not  excellent  depending   on  your  destination. § But  if  you  need  prescription  medicines,  special  medical  supplies,  or   over  the  counter  medicines,  take  an  adequate  supply  with  you   unless  you  are  sure  you  can  obtain  similar  medications  abroad. § To  avoid  problems  in  customs,  take  along  a  copy  of  any   prescriptions  and  if  possible  a  letter  from  your  doctor  and  do  some   research  if  you  have  doubts. § A  minimal  first  aid  kit  is  also  a  good  idea;  a  good  guidebook  for  your   destination  will  probably  have  suggestions  for  such  supplies:   sunscreen,  water  purification  tablets,  etc. Basic  tips  for  staying  healthy  while  traveling • Staying  healthy  while  traveling  or  living  abroad  is  largely  a  matter  of  common   sense,  assuming  you  have  prepared  before  leaving,  such  as  by  getting  the   necessary  immunizations,  reading  up  on  special  health  concerns  for  your   destination,  and  making  sure  your  health  insurance  covers  you  while  abroad. • Note  that  some  of  these  emphasize  travel  to  “less  developed”  countries: ○ Wash  your  hands  often  with  soap  and  water.  If  soap  and  water  are  not   available  and  your  hands  are  not  visibly  dirty,  us-­l ased  hand   gel  (with  at  least  60%  alcohol)  to  clean  your  hands. ○ Drink  only  bottled  or  boiled  water  or  carbonated  (bubbly)  drinks  from   sources  you  trust.  Do  not  drink  tap  water  or  fountain  drinks,  or  eat  ice   cubes. ○ Only  eat  food  that  has  been  fully  cooked  or  fruits  and  vegetables  that   have  been  washed  and  peeled  by  you.  Remember:  boil  it,  cook  it,  peel  it,   or  forget  it. ○ Each  year  350–500  million  cases  of  malaria  occur  worldwide/  If  visiting   an  area  where  you  might  get  malaria,  make  sure  to  learn  about  how  to   lower  your  risk  of  getting  malaria. ○ If  you  might  be  bitten  by  insects  (like  mosquitoes  or  ticks)  use  insect   repellent  (bug  spray)  with –50%  DEET.  The  label  on  the  container  will   tell  you  the  DEET  content. ○ Make  sure  you  know  how  to  protect  yourself  from  common  accidents  and   injuries  while  you  travel.  Motor  vehicle  accidents  and  swimming  related   accidents  are  two  major  causes  of  injury  among  travelers. • Food  and  drink  precautions  are  especially  important ○ Food  and  water  borne  diseases  are  a  common  cause  of  disease  in   travelers.   ○ Make  sure  you  know  how  to  protect  yourself  from  common  accidents  and   injuries  while  you  travel.  Motor  vehicle  accidents  and  swimming  related   accidents  are  two  major  causes  of  injury  among  travelers. • Food  and  drink  precautions  are  especially  important ○ Food  and  water  borne  diseases  are  a  common  cause  of  disease  in   travelers.   ○ Though  in  many  cases  food  and  drink  may  be  perfectly  safe,  unless  you   know  otherwise,  avoid  ice  cubes,  tap  water,  fountain  drinks,  dairy   products,  raw  or  undercooked  meats,  salads  and  other  unpeeled  raw   vegetables  or  fruits.  Eating  on  the  street  can  be  a  fun,  cheap,  and  tasty   adventure,  but  can  also  put  you  at  risk  of  illness. • Diarrhea  is  the  most  common  illness  affecting  travelers  and  is  often  related   to  contaminated  food  and  drink. • Medical  anthropology ○ Exposure  to  different  cultural  settings  will  often  expose  you  to  culturally   different  beliefs  and  practices  about  health,  the  body  and  illness. ○ For  example,  if  you  should  get  sick  while  staying  abroad  with  local  people,   you  may  be  treated  to  locally  specific  ways  of  dealing  with  your  disease  or   be  exposed  to  a  somewhat  different  medical  system. Information  resources  to  help  you  plan  an  international  trip • MSU’s  “globalEdge” ○ Maintained  by  the  MSU  Business  School  “globalEdge”,  is  a  website  that   provides  general  information  about  most  regions  of  the  world  and  is   focused  on  the  needs  of  international  business  travelers.  However,  much   of  the  information  is  useful  for  other  travelers.  It  includes  information  for   visitors  (students,  investors)  to  learn  about  the  United  States. • U.S.  Department  of  State ○ The  U.S.  Department  of  State  is  “the  lead  U.S.  foreign  affairs  agency,  and   the  Secretary  of  State  is  the  President’s  principal  foreign  policy  adviser”. ○ As  such,  one  of  its  roles  is  to  assist  U.S.  travelers  going  abroad,  and  to   advice  foreign  visitors  to  the  United  States. ○ The  website  provides  useful  information  on  passports,  visa  requirements   for  U.S.  citizens  traveling  to  other  countries,  health,  updated  warnings   about  travel  to  certain  countries,  descriptions  of  services  provided  (and   NOT  provided)  to  U.S.  citizens  abroad  by  the  U.S.  government,  etc.  They   provide  a  variety  of  information  about  specific  countries  here.  The   information  about  countries  can  often  be  useful  t-­Un.S.  citizens  who   are  planning  to  visit  them,  and  because  the  United  States  has  a  presence   in  much  of  the  world,  there  is  actually  a  lot  of  useful  information  for  most   countries  of  the  world. ○ One  caution  though  is  that  because  the  Department  of  State  is  a  U.S.   government  organization,  some  of  this  information  is  sometimes  affected   by  political  forces. are  planning  to  visit  them,  and  because  the  United  States  has  a  presence   in  much  of  the  world,  there  is  actually  a  lot  of  useful  information  for  most   countries  of  the  world. One  caution  though  is  that  because  the  Department  of  State  is  a  U.S.   ○ government  organization,  some  of  this  information  is  sometimes  affected   by  political  forces. • British  Foreign  and  Commonwealth  Office  Travel  Advice ○ Another  excellent  site  is  the  British  Foreign  and  Commonwealth  Office   Travel  Advice  web  site.  Though  a  few  items  are  meant  for  British  citizens,   much  of  the  information  is  useful  for  people  of  other  nationalities  and  the   site  covers  topics  not  covered  in  other  sites. • Find  a  good  guidebook ○ The  better  guidebooks  list  not  only  the  sights  but  provide  practical   information  on  such  topic  as  money  and  health  issues,  as  well  as  brief   descriptions  of  the  region’s  history,  economics,  etc.  Lonely  Planet,   Frommers,  and  the  Rough  Guides  are  three  recommended  guidebook   series  (all  include  guidebooks  to  the  United  States). ○ Your  guidebook  can  help  you  research  such  practical  questions  as: § Are  there  any  special  weather  or  climate  concerns  you  need  to   prepare  for? § Paperwork  and  government  bureaucrats,  laws  you  should  be   aware  of?  Do  you  need  a  visa? § Money:  how  does  the  cost  of  living  compare  to  the  USA?  Are  there   special  considerations  for  buying  and  selling  items,  bargaining,   tipping? § Where  can  you  exchange  money?  Can  you  use  ATMs  and  credit   cards,  where? § Photographs:  are  there  times  when  you  should  not  take  a  picture? § Souvenirs § Proper  and  practical  dress § Transportation:  what  do  you  need  to  know  about:  buses,  taxis,   renting  a  car  and  driving,  bicycling? § Daily  schedules,  routines,  holidays,  business  hours § Basic  business  practices § Special  concerns  related  to  staying  safe  and  out  of  trouble Safety • With  regards  to  safety  issues  while  navigating  another  culture,  in  some   situations,  a  special  concern  is  that  outsiders  may  be  targeted  because:  they   stand  out,  are  seen  as  easy  targets  who  are  ignorant  of  the  local  situation,  for   political  reasons,  or  because  they  are  (or  are  seen  as)  wealthier  than  most  local   people.   • Equally  important,  be  aware  of  what  specific  type  of  outsider  you  are:  if  you  are   a  woman,  a  US  government  representative,  or  from  a  certain  nation  state,  for   situations,  a  special  concern  is  that  outsiders  may  be  targeted  because:  they   stand  out,  are  seen  as  easy  targets  who  are  ignorant  of  the  local  situation,  for   political  reasons,  or  because  they  are  (or  are  seen  as)  wealthier  than  most  local   people.   • Equally  important,  be  aware  of  what  specific  type  of  outsider  you  are:  if  you  are   a  woman,  a  US  government  representative,  or  from  a  certain  nation  state,  for   example,  you  may  make  you  want  to  take  special  precautions  in  certain  places. • With  regards  to  navigating  another  culture,  you  have  already  learned  at  least   two  useful  types  of  information  and  skills  that  will  help  you  with  safety  issues: ○ Stereotypes  and  useful  generalizations .  One  big  problem  in  this  area  has   to  do  with  stereotypes  about  how  violent  or  dangerous  a  place  is. ○ Culture  and  perception  Although  some  threats  to  your  safety  may  be   obvious,  you  may  not  know  how  to  read  the  signs  of  danger  in  a  totally   new  environment:  what  is  a  dangerous  environment?  what  are   somebody’s  intentions?  how  do  I  know  if  it  is  safe  to  walk  in  this  area  at   night?  The  key  problem  often  is  the  outsider  may  not  know  how  to   distinguish  dangerous  areas  and  situations;  thus,  a  key  guideline  for   avoiding  trouble  is  to  become  familiar  with  the  local  situation. General  tips  and  additional  information • Contact  your  local  embassy. ○ You  may  wish  to  register  at  your  embassy  in  the  country  you  are  visiting.   This  makes  your  presence  known  to  consular  officials  in  case  they  need  to   contact  you  in  an  emergency  or  if  a  disaster  or  political  unrest  results  in   the  need  for  an  emergency  evacuation  of  citizens.  Though  there  are  limits   to  what  your  embassy  can  or  is  willing  to  do  for  you  if  you  get  in  trouble,   jot  down  contact  information  for  your  embassy  or  consulate  in  the   country  you  are  visiting;  for  U.S.  citizens  this  can  be  found  here. • Talk  to  people  who  have  been  there  and  to  local  people  when  you .ere  th ○ In  general,  it  is  a  good  idea  if  you  are  able  to  before  you  leave  to  try  to   talk  to  somebody  who  has  been  where  you  plan  to  go  and  ask  about  what   if  any  safety  concerns  they  experienced.  When  you  arrive,  ask  your  host   family,  business  associates,  friends,  or  hotel  staff  for  any  special  safety   precautions  you  should  take.  This  will  provide  you  with  the  latest   information  as  well  as  locally  specific  information  that  may  not  be   covered  in  published  materials.  Be  aware,  though,  that  just  as  in  the   United  States,  travelers  and  local  residents  may  not  always  have  a   complete  or  undistorted  picture  of  local  safety  concerns. • No  bling. ○ A  good  rule  of  thumb  is  that,  though  there  might  be  places  where  it  is  safe   to  do  so,  you  should  avoid  flaunting  signs  of  wealth:  jewelry,  expensive   electronic  equipment,  fancy  watches,  large  amounts  of  cash.  Be  aware   that  what  constitutes  a  sign  of  wealth  might  be  different  depending  on   the  locale.  Particularly  in  poorer  areas,  just  having  a  car  for  example  could   be  seen  as  a  sign  of  wealth. ○ A  good  rule  of  thumb  is  that,  though  there  might  be  places  where  it  is  safe   to  do  so,  you  should  avoid  flaunting  signs  of  wealth:  jewelry,  expensive   electronic  equipment,  fancy  watches,  large  amounts  of  cash.  Be  aware   that  what  constitutes  a  sign  of  wealth  might  be  different  depending  on   the  locale.  Particularly  in  poorer  areas,  just  having  a  car  for  example  could   be  seen  as  a  sign  of  wealth. • Driving  is  dangerou.s ○ Though  the  risks  of  crime  and  terrorism  are  often  highlighted  for  US   citizens  traveling  abroad  (see  the  State  Department  travel  advisories  in  a   previous  page  in  this  section),  the  much  higher  risks  of  being  involved  in  a   vehicular  accident  are  often  overlooked.  Unfamiliar  roads,  different   driving  rules  and  customs  may  increase  your  chances  of  being  in  an   accident.  “The  law  of  the  biggest”  prevails  in  some  places.  Safety   standards  common  in  the  United  States  or  Europe  are  not  always  found   elsewhere. Food • Adapting  to  different  foods  is  often  one  of  the  most  challenging  and  yet   rewarding  aspects  of  navigating  other  cultures.  Food  is  a  daily  and  obvious   reminder  to  travelers  that  they  are  indeed  in  a  different  culture,  and  that  ideas   of  what  “food”  is  are  culturally  influenced. Legal,  crime,  police  issues • Regardless  of  what  you  think  of  local  laws,  in  most  cases,  you  are  subject  to  the   laws  of  the  locality  you  are  visiting.  These  laws,  and  the  justice  systems,  can  be   very  different  from  what  you  are  accustomed  to. • Because  of  this,  it  is  vital  that  you  know  that  the  legal  system  in  many  countries   is  different  from  the  one  you  may  be  familiar  with. • More  common  issues  you  may  have  to  think  about  when  traveling  are: ○ Drugs  are  a  common  source  of  trouble  in  many  locales.  Avoid  any   involvement  with  illegal  drugs;  certain  countries  have  the  death  penalty   for  anybody  (foreigners  included)  caught  smuggling  drugs. ○ Homosexuality  Attitudes  and  laws  relating  to  homosexuality  may  be   negative  in  certain  parts  of  the  world. ○ Alcohol  laws  and  customs  regarding  alcohol  consumption  vary  widely  by   country,  as  do  attitudes  towards  drinking  and  drunken  behavior. ○ If  you  are  arrested,  under  the  Vienna  Convention  for  Consular  Affairs,   you  must  be  given  access  to  your  country’s  consul.  This  is  why  it  is  a   good  idea  to  have  the  contact  information  for  your  country’s  nearest   embassy/consulate  when  traveling. Money  matters • Cost  of  living   ○ The  cost  of  living  abroad  can  vary  tremendously,  both  from  what  you  are   good  idea  to  have  the  contact  information  for  your  country’s  nearest   embassy/consulate  when  traveling. Money  matters • Cost  of  living   ○ The  cost  of  living  abroad  can  vary  tremendously,  both  from  what  you  are   accustomed  to  and  within  any  country. • How  to  pay  for  things ○ Local  practices  vary  as  to  what  forms  of  payment  are  accepted.  Despite   globalization  of  international  financial  services,  neither  U.S.  dollars,   travelers  checks,  nor  credit  cards  are  universally  accepted. • Bargaining ○ Awareness  that  there  are  different  ideas  about  bargaining  will  help  you  in   any  monetary  transactions  abroad. ○ In  many  cultures,  bargaining  is  acceptable,  but  the  form  and  amount  of   bargaining  will  vary,  and  bargaining  may  take  place  in  only  certain   settings:  for  example,  at  a  marketplace  but  not  in  a  modern  department   store.  And  though  bargaining  is  often  acceptable,  it  is  usually  best  to  be   relaxed  about  it  and  not  treat  the  situation  as  a  matter  of  being  cheated  if   you  don’t  feel  you  get  the  best  deal. ○ In  some  places,  bargaining  serves  as  a  social  and  not  just  a  business   transaction,  so  the  issue  is  not  just  getting  a  good  deal  but  interacting   with  the  seller. • Tipping ○ Tipping  practices  also  vary  and  can  also  change,  and  are  best  learned   about  by  consulting  your  guidebook. Poverty  and  Differences  in  Living  Standards  Abroad • In  many  countries,  poverty  is  more  widespread  and  apparent  than  it  is  in  places   like  Europe  and  the  United  States.  You  may  face  a  certain  amount  of   psychological  and  possibly  physical  discomfort  when  faced  with  scenes  of   poverty,  such  as  the  common  site  of  children  bathing  on  the  ground  with  a   bucket  of  water. Different  Sensory  Environments • Whether  you  find  yourself  dealing  with  poverty  or  not,  often,  one  of  the  key   challenges  of  navigating  another  culture  involves  not  just  interpersonal   interactions,  but  a  different  sensory  environment. • Within  certain  parameters,  what  people  consider  a  “comfortable”  environment   is  often  shaped  by  culture.  Even  if  you  are  staying  at  a  modern  hotel  or   apartment  complex,  you  will  probably  experience  some  form  of  sensory   difference  once  you  step  out  onto  the  street.  Some  of  the  differences  can   include: ○ Weather  and  altitude is  often  shaped  by  culture.  Even  if  you  are  staying  at  a  modern  hotel  or   apartment  complex,  you  will  probably  experience  some  form  of  sensory   difference  once  you  step  out  onto  the  street.  Some  of  the  differences  can   include: ○ Weather  and  altitude § Obviously  this  is  not  culturally  produced  but  preparing  for  and   giving  yourself  time  to  adapt  to  different  weather  and  altitudes  is   often  a  good  idea. ○ Shelter § Living  conditions  may  vary  from  a  five  star  hotel  to  what  you  would   label  as  “primitive”  “unsanitary”  or  “crowded”.  In  particular,  for   individuals  staying  with  families,  there  may  be  different  levels  of   privacy  and  noise  that  very  from  what  you  are  used  to.  You  may   have  to  share  a  room,  the  house  may  be  smaller,  people  may  be   expected  to  be  in  the  commons  area  (living  room,  dining  room)   rather  than  in  their  bedroom  alone,  and  there  may  be  little  auditory   (noise)  privacy.  Water  and  electricity  may  not  run  all  the  time. ○ Cultural  sensory  environment § You  will  find  tremendous  variety  in  your  environment  worldwide:   smells,  sounds,  tastes,  how  space  is  used,  etc.  Travel  is  an  enriching   experience  because  it  exposes  us  to  such  differences,  but  these  can   be  a  source  of  discomfort.  Our  sense  of  culture  shock  is  in  part   created  by  many  subtle  differences  in  our  everyday  environme—nt smells,  tastes,  textures,  climate,  and  sounds.  You  will  be  exposed  to   both  pleasant  and  unpleasant  sounds. § Though  you  cannot  do  much  to  change  this  environment,  it  will  help   you  to  be  aware  of  the  obvious  and  subtle  ways  in  which  your   environment  differs  from  home.  Travelers  often  encounter  different   levels  of  noise,  smells,  and  crowding  that  can  add  up  to  sensory   overload  or  disorientation.  Earplugs  can  be  a  good  investment,  but   being  aware  of  the  source  of  discomfort,  flexibility  and  giving   yourself  time  to  adapt  are  probably  the  best  coping  mechanisms.  At   the  same  time,  there  is  nothing  wrong  with  occasionally  retreating   into  a  space  (your  room,  an  air  conditioned  café)  where  you  can   have  a  momentary  break  from  such  stimuli. Culture  Shock What  is  Culture  Shock? • Broadly  speaking,  culture  shock  refers  to  the  emotional  aspects  of  adapting  to  a   new  culture. • As  the  U.S.  Department  of  State  notes,  “An  overseas  move  challenges  the  four   basic  psychological  needs:  competence,  relatedness,  self -­‐esteem,  and  a  sense  of   control. • Often,  culture  shock  refers  to  feelings  such  as  anxiety,  confusion,  and   • Broadly  speaking,  culture  shock  refers  to  the  emotional  aspects  of  adapting  to  a   new  culture. • As  the  U.S.  Department  of  State  notes,  “An  overseas  move  challenges  the  four   basic  psychological  needs:  competence,  relatedness,  self -­‐esteem,  and  a  sense  of   control. • Often,  culture  shock  refers  to  feelings  such  as  anxiety,  confusion,  and   annoyance  associated  with  exposure  to  a  new  cultural  environment.  Other   symptoms  of  culture  shock  can  include  insomnia,  depression,  excessive  concern   with  health  matters,  oversleeping,  isolation,  lack  of  self -­‐confidence,  negative   views  of  the  host  culture,  homesickness,  anger,  etc.  While  these  may  be   negative  and  difficult  adjustments,  culture  shock  can  be  seen  as  a  process  of   growth  whereby  one  learns  to  adapt  to  a  different  culture. • The  social  scientistKalvero  Oberg,  who  conducted  research  and  did  work  for   the  U.S.  government  abroad  on  this  topic,  coined  the  term  “culture  shock”  in   1954.  Oberg  noted  that  at  a  certain  stage  of  many  individuals’  experiences   abroad,  cultural  differences  big  and  small  seem  overwhelming  and  lead  to  a   sense  of  disorientation.  Different  smells,  noises,  sense  of  punctuality,   cleanliness,  architecture,  language,  foods,  behaviors,  etc.  stop  being  curious   novelties  and  become  instead  obstacles  or  sources  of  discomfort. • Olberg  identified four  stages  of  culture  shock : 1. An  initial  “honeymoon”  period  where  the  details  of  adapting  to  your   new  environment  and  the  sense  of  novelty  and  adventure  make  for  a   generally  positive  experience. 2. A  stage  involving  hostility  and  a  variety  of  negative  feelings  (isolation,   inadequacy)  when  you  realize  that  your  accustomed  ways  of  doing   things  are  not  always  adequate  or  understood.  You  will  find  yourself  not   understanding  certain  behaviors  in  the  local  culture,  and  find  that  some   of  your  behaviors  are  misinterpreted.  This  stage  (though  some  authors   label  this  as  a  separate  stage)  also  involves  idealization  of  your  home   country  and  culture. 3. A  stage  of  reconciliation  where  you  slowly  adapt  to  life  in  a  new  setting. 4. The  final  stage  is  labeled  “acceptance  of  another  way  of  life”  where  you   accept  the  validity  of  both  your  culture  and  the  culture  of  your  host   country. Dealing  with  Culture  Shock • Your  experience  of  culture  shock  will  vary  depending  on  you  and  your   environment  but  it  is  quite  normal;  do  not  blame  yourself  or  your  environment   for  it.  Differences  in  individual  personality  and  in  cultural  and  social   backgrounds  will  lead  people  to  experience  culture  shock  differently. • Recognizing  that  you  are  experiencing  culture  shock  and  its  stages  is  one   effective  way  of  dealing  with  this  phenomenon.  Though  inevitable  for  many   people,  some  simple  yet  effective  short  term  strategies  for  dealing  with  culture   shock  include: for  it.  Differences  in  individual  personality  and  in  cultural  and  social   backgrounds  will  lead  people  to  experience  culture  shock  differently. • Recognizing  that  you  are  experiencing  culture  shock  and  its  stages  is  one   effective  way  of  dealing  with  this  phenomenon.  Though  inevitable  for  many   people,  some  simple  yet  effective  short  term  strategies  for  dealing  with  culture   shock  include: ○ writing  a  journal ○ trying  to  maintain  healthy  eating,  exercise,  and  sleeping  habits ○ maintaining  a  sense  of  humor  and  realistic  expectations ○ talking  to  friends • Also  useful  is  this  advice  by  the  U.S.  Department  of  State  for  U.S.  officials   moving  abroad: ○ New  places,  with  their  sights,  smells,  and  sounds,  pack  an  emotional   wallop.  Finding  new  work,  friends,  and  activities  can  take  longer  than   expected.  All  of  this,  good  and  bad,  equals  stress,  which  can  suppress   your  immune  system  and  affect  your  health. ○ Many  of  us,  when  faced  with  stressful  situations,  seek  “immediate   comfort”:  having  a  few  drinks  or  eating  sugar-­arb  foods.  Instead,   try  some  of  the  suggestions  below. § Exercise  (and  be  sure  to  stretch  afterwards). § Eat  nutritiously,  drink  plenty  of  clean  water,  and  avoid  caffeine,   junk  food,  alcohol,  and  tobacco. § Get  enough  sleep  and  take  plenty  of  breaks,  doing  things  that  you   enjoy. § Enlist  your  old  and  new  support  network. § Use  the  move  as  an  excuse  to  avoid  people  who  ratchet  up  the   tension. § Accept  help. § Maintain  your  religious  /  spiritual  practices. § Find  safe  ways  to  express  your  emotions. § Use  classic  stress  reduction  techniques  such  as  deep  breathing   (repeating  a  positive  phrase  if  helpful),  meditating,  listening  to   music,  or  going  on  walks. Adapting  to  Different  Social  Roles Importance  of  Understanding  social  roles  and  relationships • To  successfully  navigate  other  cultures,  you  need  to  understand  how  the   expectations  for  people  in  these  roles,  which  you  learned  as  a  child  and  may   seem  as  totally  “natural”  to  you,  will  differ  cross -­‐culturally  and  how  any   intercultural  encounter  will  vary  depending  on  what  roles  you  and  the  other   people  have.  Different  roles  will  affect  intercultural  interactions  in  different   ways. seem  as  totally  “natural”  to  you,  will  differ  cross -­‐culturally  and  how  any   intercultural  encounter  will  vary  depending  on  what  roles  you  and  the  other   people  have.  Different  roles  will  affect  intercultural  interactions  in  different   ways. How  you  navigate  a  culture  depends  on  your  specific  social  roles  and  relationships • Navigating  another  culture  is  not  just  about  learning  basic  beliefs  and  behaviors   that  are  generally  considered  appropriate  for  that  “culture”  as  a  whole.  It  is  also   about  knowing  the  variations  in  how  these  beliefs  and  behaviors  among  people   with  different  social  roles  in  that  cultural  setting.  What  is  “culturally   appropriate”  behavior  in  any  one  place  or  setting  can  vary  depending  on  the   roles  and  relationships  of  the  people  involved. • Many  people  can  identify  with  a  “higher  level”  culture(s),  such  as  nationality,   but  they  are  are  rarely  simply  members  of  that  higher  level  culture.  People  also   usually  have  social  roles  in  that  culture –male,  female,  close  family,  friend,   neighbor,  old,  young,  rich,  poor.  Therefore,  one  important  area  to  consider   when  navigating  another  culture  has  to  do  with  understanding  the  various  social   roles  and  relationships  in  that  society,  and  what  are  the  expectations  for  these. Male  and  Female:  Gender  Roles • Anthropologists  use  the  word genderto  refer  to  the  cultural  expectations,   roles,  and  statuses  given  to  males  and  females.  They  distinguish  this   from biological  sex,  which  is  refers  to  the  biological  traits  inherent  to  each  of   the  two  sexes  (for  example,  men  tend  to  be  bigger).  Most  anthropologists  argue   that  culture  is  an  important  factor  in  explaining  differences  in  patterns  of   behavior  (and  roles,  values,  etc.)  between  men  and  women. • The  key  point  is  that  how  men  and  women  are  expected  to  behave  and  relate  to   each  other  will  vary  a  lot  cross  culturally,  and  will  almost  always  be  a  factor  you   need  to  consider  when  navigating  another  culture. • Variations  in  gender  roles  across  cultures  will  affect  your  interactions  with   people  in  different  cultures.  The  only  thing  you  can  be  sure  of  is  that  gender   roles  are  a  key  component  in  many  societies. • There  are  two  cautions  you  should  use  when  assessing  gender  roles  in  other   cultural  settings: 1. Gender  roles  are  changing  in  many  parts  of  the  world 2. That  just  because  women  seem  “oppressed”  from  a  Western   perspective  (e.g.  women  must  wear  veils)  this  does  not  necessarily   mean  they  are  oppressed  within  the  framework  of  their  own  culture  and   society. Navigating  gender  roles  in  Saudi  Arabia • The  separation  between  the  sexes  in  Saudi  Arabia  is  so  extreme  that  it  is   difficult  to  overstate.  Saudi  women  may  not  drive,  and  they  must  wear  black   abayas  and  head  coverings  in  public  at  all  times.  They  are  spirited  around  the   society. Navigating  gender  roles  in  Saudi  Arabia • The  separation  between  the  sexes  in  Saudi  Arabia  is  so  extreme  that  it  is   difficult  to  overstate.  Saudi  women  may  not  drive,  and  they  must  wear  black   abayas  and  head  coverings  in  public  at  all  times.  They  are  spirited  around  the   city  in  cars  with  tinted  windows,  atte-­snly  schools  and  university   departments,  and  eat  in  special  “family”  sections  of  cafes  and  restaurants,   which  are  carefully  partitioned  from  the  sections  used  by  single  male  diners. Advice  for  women  travelers • Because  of  such  things  as  machismo  and  restrictions  on  female  behavior  in   some  countries,  female  travelers  should  be  aware  of  proper  public  behavior  for   women.  Behaviors  that  a  woman  might  think  is  normal  in  the  United  States,   Canada,  or  Europe  may  be  misinterpreted  elsewhere. • Clothing  that  a  woman  might  consider  normal  may  be  seen  as  inappropriate   and/or  sexually  provocative  where  you  go.  Though  you  don’t  need  to  “go   native”  you  may  find  it  useful  to  observe  what  women  around  you  are  wearing   for  some  idea  of  what  to  wear  in  order  not  to  bring  too  much  attention  to   yourself. • Women  traveling  alone  can  expect  to  receive  unwelcome  attention  and   remarks,  which  are  usually  best  ignored.  In  part  because  of  exposure  to  movies   and  television,  women  perceived  as  being  from  the  U.S.  and  certain  European   countries  are  sometimes  seen  as  attractive,  sexually  open,  desirable,  and/or   promiscuous.  Be  aware  of  how  your  behavior  and  dress  may  unintentionally   perpetuate  this  stereotype  and  make  you  the  subject  of  unwelcome  advances. Race  and  ethnicity • Race  and  ethnicity  are  closely  related  words.  Ethnicieyn  ds  to  emphasize   shared  descent,  but  also  shared  culture,  religion,  language,  and  geographic   origin. • The  key  aspect  of  ethnic  identity  is  that  it  is  defined  in  relation  to  other  ethnic   groups.  What  matters  is  not  so  much  the  specific  components  of  ethnicity  (your   costumes,  food,  etc.)  but  rather  that  your  ethnic  group  is  separate  from  other   ethnic  groups. • Race,  on  the  other  hand,  focuses  on  easily  recognized  physical  characteristics   which  are  translated  into  racial  categories. Both  race  and  ethnicity,  however,   are  culturally  constructed  categorie . s • If  you  are  a  person  of  color  be  aware  that  discrimination  and  stereotypes  about   certain  ethnic  minorities  may  exist  in  certain  locations,  though  often  the  focus  is   on  minority  groups  relevant  to  that  country’s  history.  You  may  find  that  “racial”   terms  or  categories  commonly  used  in  the  United  States  may  not  be  used  in   other  places,  or  that  they  may  have  different  meanings. • If  you  are  a  person  of  color  be  aware  that  discrimination  and  stereotypes  about   certain  ethnic  minorities  may  exist  in  certain  locations,  though  often  the  focus  is   on  minority  groups  relevant  to  that  country’s  history.  You  may  find  that  “racial”   terms  or  categories  commonly  used  in  the  United  States  may  not  be  used  in   other  places,  or  that  they  may  have  different  meanings. Social  class,  status  and  other  forms  of  social  hierarchy • Status is  the  most  general  category,  referring  to,  “The  social  honor  or  prestige   that  a  particular  group  is  accorded  by  other  members  of  a  society.  Status  groups   normally  display  distinct  styles  of  life -­‐patterns  of  behavior  that  the  members  of   the  group  follow.  Status  privilege  may  be  positive  or  negative. • As  one  sociology  textbook  notes  in  this definition  of  class,  “Although  it  is  one  of   the  most  frequently  used  concepts  in  sociology,  there  is  no  clear  agreement   about  how  the  notion  should  be  defined.  Most  sociologists  use  the  term  to  refer   to  socioeconomic  variations  between  groups  of  individuals  that  create  variation   in  their  material  prosperity  and  power.” • Some  anthropologists  focus  more  on  the cultural  dimensions  of  classsuch  as   the  different  types  of  fashions  and  behaviors  associated  with  various  social   classes. • Another  important  consideration  is  that  what  is  defined  as  proper  behavior  will   be  shaped  by  class  and  status. • U.S.  views  of  class  and  status  (overall)  are  quite  unique .  Although  numerous   social  inequalities  exist  in  the  United  States,  people  in  the  United  States  value   the  idea  (or  at  least  the  appearance)  ofegalitarianism :  everybody  has  certain   rights  regardless  of  their  status  in  society,  and  there  should  be  no  barriers  to   personal  achievement  based  on  talent  and  hard  work. • In  other  countries,  the  boundaries  between  social  classes  may  be  more  rigid   (perhaps  seen  as  more  natural)  and  social  inequalities  may  be  more  accepted.   There  may  be  an  emphasis  on  maintaining  and  marking  differences  between   people  of  different  statuses.  Bosses  may  expect  to  be  called  by  their  titles,  may   not  delegate  as  much,  and  may  not  expect  as  much  initiative  or  candid  opinions   from  subordinates.  Professors  in  other  countries  may  view  critical  questions   from  students  as  disrespectful,  and  this  is  one  of  the  factormany  t  leads Chinese  international  students  in  United  States  universities  to  have   difficulties  navigating  U.S.  college  classroom  culture. Strangers  and  Foreigners Attitudes  to  Strangers  and  Outsiders • In  terms  of  navigating  another  culture,  you  will  find  that  being  a  stranger  can   have  positive  and  negative  aspects.  It  can  sometimes  give  you  the  benefit  of  a   doubt.  In  other  words,  if  you  do  something  wrong,  your  status  as  a  stranger  can   provide  a  convenient  excuse.  Another  benefit  is  that  as  a  stranger,  you  may  play   the  role  of  the  detached  outsider,  and  people  will  tell  you  things  they  normally   don’t  tell  people  in  their  community. • In  terms  of  navigating  another  culture,  you  will  find  that  being  a  stranger  can   have  positive  and  negative  aspects.  It  can  sometimes  give  you  the  benefit  of  a   doubt.  In  other  words,  if  you  do  something  wrong,  your  status  as  a  stranger  can   provide  a  convenient  excuse.  Another  benefit  is  that  as  a  stranger,  you  may  play   the  role  of  the  detached  outsider,  and  people  will  tell  you  things  they  normally   don’t  tell  people  in  their  community. Attitude  to  Foreigners • For  many  cultural  navigators,  a  key  role  of  concern  to  them  is  their  role  as  a   foreigner  in  the  locale  they  are  visiting  or  living  in.  U.S.  citizens  will  encounter  a   wide  variety  of  attitudes  towards  them  because  of  the  dominant  role  of  the   United  States  in  the  world.  As  China  becomes  more  economically  influential   around  the  world,  attitudes  towards  China  will  become  a  factor  for  Chinese   visitors  to  other  parts  of  the  world. • One  thing  is  for  sure:  attitudes  towards  different  nationalities  are   oftencontextualand  are  especially  affected  by  current  events. • People  who  face  the  challenge  of  navigating  another  culture  in  a  different   country  should  be  aware  of  a  few  issues: ○ Any  sentiments  against  your countrydo  not  always  translate  into   sentiments  and  actions  against  people  from  your  country  (i.e.  there  is  an   awareness  that  the  tourist  does  not  necessarily  represent  the  country’s   government). ○ Depending  on  the  situation,  how  you’re  treated  may  have  more  to  do   with  other  contextual  variables  beyond  or  in  addition  to  your   nationality,  such  as  who  is  around  you,  the  setting,  your  appearance,   occupation,  status  as  a  relatively  wealthy  tourist,  gender,  personality,   etc. ○ Seeing  media  examples  of  sentiments  against  your  country,  or  even   personally  experiencing   one  such  incident  should  not  lead  to  the   creation  of  fallacious  “inductive  stereotypes”.  Yes,  you  may  be   witnessing  a  social  fact,  but  no,  in  most  cases  not  everybody  is   connected  to  this  phenomenon.  Again,  just  because  the  U.S.  candidate   for  Miss  Universe  was  booed  in  Mexico  should  not  detract  from  the  fact   that  many  U.S.  visitors  are  warmly  welcomed  in  Mexico,  and  from  the   general  opinions  that  Mexicans  have  of  the  United  States  (mentioned  in   the  article  link  above  that  you  should  have  read  by  now). ○ However,  do  your  research.  Be  aware  that  being  perceived  as  a  citizen   of  a  certain  country  may  lead  to  anti-­‐X-­‐country  sentiments  being   expressed  in  front  of  you  and  they  may  even  affect  you  (being  insulted,   for  example).  But,  even  if  you  are  not  personally  affected,  being   informed  about  how  your  country  is  perceived  where  you  go  is  useful.   You  may  want  to  think  of  some  diplomatic  answers  if  confronted  with   critiques  of  the  your  government  or


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