Module 4 Notes
Module 4 Notes ANP200
Popular in Navigating Another Culture
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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by NotetakerS on Wednesday December 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANP200 at Michigan State University taught by A. Quan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 238 views. For similar materials see Navigating Another Culture in General Science at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 12/16/15
Module 4 Basic Adaptation Issues when Navigating other Cultures Adapting to Different Living Conditions Health matters Staying healthy is important • Many cultural navigators will find themselves in places where food, environment, and medical care are different from what they are accustomed to. Although these variables most likely do not directly affect your relationships with people, your ability to adapt to a different environment will be better if you are healthy. In addition, knowing local systems and attitudes towards health issues will help you stay healthy or to deal with possible illnesses. Things to do before you leave for another country • But ideally, if you plan to travel to a different country, there are several things you should do before leaving your home country to stay healthy and to be prepared in case you get sick. The key ones are: ○ Immunizations § Before you leave, it’s advisable to research necessary immunizations and special health concerns related to where you are going. Advance preparation is often essential; many immunizations must be started 6 or more weeks before you leave, and insurance must be purchased in advance. The U.S. government’s Centers for Disease Control (CD wCe)b site is a ○ good starting point to help you prepare for medical and health issues while traveling. § Specifically the U.S. CDC travel website with information on immunizations and health conditions abroad, food and water concerns, recommendations for travelers with special needs such as pregnancy or disabilities, children. ○ Health and emergency medical evacuation insurance § If you have health insurance, check if your medical insurance will pay for medical costs outside of your country. A very basic aspect of navigating another culture involves preparing for unexpected health emergencies. ○ Depending on your circumstances, you may wish to consiermergency medical evacuation insurance , which pays for air travel back to a medical facility in your country in case of a serious health emergency. ○ Take health care supplies navigating another culture involves preparing for unexpected health emergencies. ○ Depending on your circumstances, you may wish to consiermergency medical evacuation insurance , which pays for air travel back to a medical facility in your country in case of a serious health emergency. ○ Take health care supplies § Medical care systems can be adequate if not excellent depending on your destination. § But if you need prescription medicines, special medical supplies, or over the counter medicines, take an adequate supply with you unless you are sure you can obtain similar medications abroad. § To avoid problems in customs, take along a copy of any prescriptions and if possible a letter from your doctor and do some research if you have doubts. § A minimal first aid kit is also a good idea; a good guidebook for your destination will probably have suggestions for such supplies: sunscreen, water purification tablets, etc. Basic tips for staying healthy while traveling • Staying healthy while traveling or living abroad is largely a matter of common sense, assuming you have prepared before leaving, such as by getting the necessary immunizations, reading up on special health concerns for your destination, and making sure your health insurance covers you while abroad. • Note that some of these emphasize travel to “less developed” countries: ○ Wash your hands often with soap and water. If soap and water are not available and your hands are not visibly dirty, us-l ased hand gel (with at least 60% alcohol) to clean your hands. ○ Drink only bottled or boiled water or carbonated (bubbly) drinks from sources you trust. Do not drink tap water or fountain drinks, or eat ice cubes. ○ Only eat food that has been fully cooked or fruits and vegetables that have been washed and peeled by you. Remember: boil it, cook it, peel it, or forget it. ○ Each year 350–500 million cases of malaria occur worldwide/ If visiting an area where you might get malaria, make sure to learn about how to lower your risk of getting malaria. ○ If you might be bitten by insects (like mosquitoes or ticks) use insect repellent (bug spray) with –50% DEET. The label on the container will tell you the DEET content. ○ Make sure you know how to protect yourself from common accidents and injuries while you travel. Motor vehicle accidents and swimming related accidents are two major causes of injury among travelers. • Food and drink precautions are especially important ○ Food and water borne diseases are a common cause of disease in travelers. ○ Make sure you know how to protect yourself from common accidents and injuries while you travel. Motor vehicle accidents and swimming related accidents are two major causes of injury among travelers. • Food and drink precautions are especially important ○ Food and water borne diseases are a common cause of disease in travelers. ○ Though in many cases food and drink may be perfectly safe, unless you know otherwise, avoid ice cubes, tap water, fountain drinks, dairy products, raw or undercooked meats, salads and other unpeeled raw vegetables or fruits. Eating on the street can be a fun, cheap, and tasty adventure, but can also put you at risk of illness. • Diarrhea is the most common illness affecting travelers and is often related to contaminated food and drink. • Medical anthropology ○ Exposure to different cultural settings will often expose you to culturally different beliefs and practices about health, the body and illness. ○ For example, if you should get sick while staying abroad with local people, you may be treated to locally specific ways of dealing with your disease or be exposed to a somewhat different medical system. Information resources to help you plan an international trip • MSU’s “globalEdge” ○ Maintained by the MSU Business School “globalEdge”, is a website that provides general information about most regions of the world and is focused on the needs of international business travelers. However, much of the information is useful for other travelers. It includes information for visitors (students, investors) to learn about the United States. • U.S. Department of State ○ The U.S. Department of State is “the lead U.S. foreign affairs agency, and the Secretary of State is the President’s principal foreign policy adviser”. ○ As such, one of its roles is to assist U.S. travelers going abroad, and to advice foreign visitors to the United States. ○ The website provides useful information on passports, visa requirements for U.S. citizens traveling to other countries, health, updated warnings about travel to certain countries, descriptions of services provided (and NOT provided) to U.S. citizens abroad by the U.S. government, etc. They provide a variety of information about specific countries here. The information about countries can often be useful t-Un.S. citizens who are planning to visit them, and because the United States has a presence in much of the world, there is actually a lot of useful information for most countries of the world. ○ One caution though is that because the Department of State is a U.S. government organization, some of this information is sometimes affected by political forces. are planning to visit them, and because the United States has a presence in much of the world, there is actually a lot of useful information for most countries of the world. One caution though is that because the Department of State is a U.S. ○ government organization, some of this information is sometimes affected by political forces. • British Foreign and Commonwealth Office Travel Advice ○ Another excellent site is the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office Travel Advice web site. Though a few items are meant for British citizens, much of the information is useful for people of other nationalities and the site covers topics not covered in other sites. • Find a good guidebook ○ The better guidebooks list not only the sights but provide practical information on such topic as money and health issues, as well as brief descriptions of the region’s history, economics, etc. Lonely Planet, Frommers, and the Rough Guides are three recommended guidebook series (all include guidebooks to the United States). ○ Your guidebook can help you research such practical questions as: § Are there any special weather or climate concerns you need to prepare for? § Paperwork and government bureaucrats, laws you should be aware of? Do you need a visa? § Money: how does the cost of living compare to the USA? Are there special considerations for buying and selling items, bargaining, tipping? § Where can you exchange money? Can you use ATMs and credit cards, where? § Photographs: are there times when you should not take a picture? § Souvenirs § Proper and practical dress § Transportation: what do you need to know about: buses, taxis, renting a car and driving, bicycling? § Daily schedules, routines, holidays, business hours § Basic business practices § Special concerns related to staying safe and out of trouble Safety • With regards to safety issues while navigating another culture, in some situations, a special concern is that outsiders may be targeted because: they stand out, are seen as easy targets who are ignorant of the local situation, for political reasons, or because they are (or are seen as) wealthier than most local people. • Equally important, be aware of what specific type of outsider you are: if you are a woman, a US government representative, or from a certain nation state, for situations, a special concern is that outsiders may be targeted because: they stand out, are seen as easy targets who are ignorant of the local situation, for political reasons, or because they are (or are seen as) wealthier than most local people. • Equally important, be aware of what specific type of outsider you are: if you are a woman, a US government representative, or from a certain nation state, for example, you may make you want to take special precautions in certain places. • With regards to navigating another culture, you have already learned at least two useful types of information and skills that will help you with safety issues: ○ Stereotypes and useful generalizations . One big problem in this area has to do with stereotypes about how violent or dangerous a place is. ○ Culture and perception Although some threats to your safety may be obvious, you may not know how to read the signs of danger in a totally new environment: what is a dangerous environment? what are somebody’s intentions? how do I know if it is safe to walk in this area at night? The key problem often is the outsider may not know how to distinguish dangerous areas and situations; thus, a key guideline for avoiding trouble is to become familiar with the local situation. General tips and additional information • Contact your local embassy. ○ You may wish to register at your embassy in the country you are visiting. This makes your presence known to consular officials in case they need to contact you in an emergency or if a disaster or political unrest results in the need for an emergency evacuation of citizens. Though there are limits to what your embassy can or is willing to do for you if you get in trouble, jot down contact information for your embassy or consulate in the country you are visiting; for U.S. citizens this can be found here. • Talk to people who have been there and to local people when you .ere th ○ In general, it is a good idea if you are able to before you leave to try to talk to somebody who has been where you plan to go and ask about what if any safety concerns they experienced. When you arrive, ask your host family, business associates, friends, or hotel staff for any special safety precautions you should take. This will provide you with the latest information as well as locally specific information that may not be covered in published materials. Be aware, though, that just as in the United States, travelers and local residents may not always have a complete or undistorted picture of local safety concerns. • No bling. ○ A good rule of thumb is that, though there might be places where it is safe to do so, you should avoid flaunting signs of wealth: jewelry, expensive electronic equipment, fancy watches, large amounts of cash. Be aware that what constitutes a sign of wealth might be different depending on the locale. Particularly in poorer areas, just having a car for example could be seen as a sign of wealth. ○ A good rule of thumb is that, though there might be places where it is safe to do so, you should avoid flaunting signs of wealth: jewelry, expensive electronic equipment, fancy watches, large amounts of cash. Be aware that what constitutes a sign of wealth might be different depending on the locale. Particularly in poorer areas, just having a car for example could be seen as a sign of wealth. • Driving is dangerou.s ○ Though the risks of crime and terrorism are often highlighted for US citizens traveling abroad (see the State Department travel advisories in a previous page in this section), the much higher risks of being involved in a vehicular accident are often overlooked. Unfamiliar roads, different driving rules and customs may increase your chances of being in an accident. “The law of the biggest” prevails in some places. Safety standards common in the United States or Europe are not always found elsewhere. Food • Adapting to different foods is often one of the most challenging and yet rewarding aspects of navigating other cultures. Food is a daily and obvious reminder to travelers that they are indeed in a different culture, and that ideas of what “food” is are culturally influenced. Legal, crime, police issues • Regardless of what you think of local laws, in most cases, you are subject to the laws of the locality you are visiting. These laws, and the justice systems, can be very different from what you are accustomed to. • Because of this, it is vital that you know that the legal system in many countries is different from the one you may be familiar with. • More common issues you may have to think about when traveling are: ○ Drugs are a common source of trouble in many locales. Avoid any involvement with illegal drugs; certain countries have the death penalty for anybody (foreigners included) caught smuggling drugs. ○ Homosexuality Attitudes and laws relating to homosexuality may be negative in certain parts of the world. ○ Alcohol laws and customs regarding alcohol consumption vary widely by country, as do attitudes towards drinking and drunken behavior. ○ If you are arrested, under the Vienna Convention for Consular Affairs, you must be given access to your country’s consul. This is why it is a good idea to have the contact information for your country’s nearest embassy/consulate when traveling. Money matters • Cost of living ○ The cost of living abroad can vary tremendously, both from what you are good idea to have the contact information for your country’s nearest embassy/consulate when traveling. Money matters • Cost of living ○ The cost of living abroad can vary tremendously, both from what you are accustomed to and within any country. • How to pay for things ○ Local practices vary as to what forms of payment are accepted. Despite globalization of international financial services, neither U.S. dollars, travelers checks, nor credit cards are universally accepted. • Bargaining ○ Awareness that there are different ideas about bargaining will help you in any monetary transactions abroad. ○ In many cultures, bargaining is acceptable, but the form and amount of bargaining will vary, and bargaining may take place in only certain settings: for example, at a marketplace but not in a modern department store. And though bargaining is often acceptable, it is usually best to be relaxed about it and not treat the situation as a matter of being cheated if you don’t feel you get the best deal. ○ In some places, bargaining serves as a social and not just a business transaction, so the issue is not just getting a good deal but interacting with the seller. • Tipping ○ Tipping practices also vary and can also change, and are best learned about by consulting your guidebook. Poverty and Differences in Living Standards Abroad • In many countries, poverty is more widespread and apparent than it is in places like Europe and the United States. You may face a certain amount of psychological and possibly physical discomfort when faced with scenes of poverty, such as the common site of children bathing on the ground with a bucket of water. Different Sensory Environments • Whether you find yourself dealing with poverty or not, often, one of the key challenges of navigating another culture involves not just interpersonal interactions, but a different sensory environment. • Within certain parameters, what people consider a “comfortable” environment is often shaped by culture. Even if you are staying at a modern hotel or apartment complex, you will probably experience some form of sensory difference once you step out onto the street. Some of the differences can include: ○ Weather and altitude is often shaped by culture. Even if you are staying at a modern hotel or apartment complex, you will probably experience some form of sensory difference once you step out onto the street. Some of the differences can include: ○ Weather and altitude § Obviously this is not culturally produced but preparing for and giving yourself time to adapt to different weather and altitudes is often a good idea. ○ Shelter § Living conditions may vary from a five star hotel to what you would label as “primitive” “unsanitary” or “crowded”. In particular, for individuals staying with families, there may be different levels of privacy and noise that very from what you are used to. You may have to share a room, the house may be smaller, people may be expected to be in the commons area (living room, dining room) rather than in their bedroom alone, and there may be little auditory (noise) privacy. Water and electricity may not run all the time. ○ Cultural sensory environment § You will find tremendous variety in your environment worldwide: smells, sounds, tastes, how space is used, etc. Travel is an enriching experience because it exposes us to such differences, but these can be a source of discomfort. Our sense of culture shock is in part created by many subtle differences in our everyday environme—nt smells, tastes, textures, climate, and sounds. You will be exposed to both pleasant and unpleasant sounds. § Though you cannot do much to change this environment, it will help you to be aware of the obvious and subtle ways in which your environment differs from home. Travelers often encounter different levels of noise, smells, and crowding that can add up to sensory overload or disorientation. Earplugs can be a good investment, but being aware of the source of discomfort, flexibility and giving yourself time to adapt are probably the best coping mechanisms. At the same time, there is nothing wrong with occasionally retreating into a space (your room, an air conditioned café) where you can have a momentary break from such stimuli. Culture Shock What is Culture Shock? • Broadly speaking, culture shock refers to the emotional aspects of adapting to a new culture. • As the U.S. Department of State notes, “An overseas move challenges the four basic psychological needs: competence, relatedness, self -‐esteem, and a sense of control. • Often, culture shock refers to feelings such as anxiety, confusion, and • Broadly speaking, culture shock refers to the emotional aspects of adapting to a new culture. • As the U.S. Department of State notes, “An overseas move challenges the four basic psychological needs: competence, relatedness, self -‐esteem, and a sense of control. • Often, culture shock refers to feelings such as anxiety, confusion, and annoyance associated with exposure to a new cultural environment. Other symptoms of culture shock can include insomnia, depression, excessive concern with health matters, oversleeping, isolation, lack of self -‐confidence, negative views of the host culture, homesickness, anger, etc. While these may be negative and difficult adjustments, culture shock can be seen as a process of growth whereby one learns to adapt to a different culture. • The social scientistKalvero Oberg, who conducted research and did work for the U.S. government abroad on this topic, coined the term “culture shock” in 1954. Oberg noted that at a certain stage of many individuals’ experiences abroad, cultural differences big and small seem overwhelming and lead to a sense of disorientation. Different smells, noises, sense of punctuality, cleanliness, architecture, language, foods, behaviors, etc. stop being curious novelties and become instead obstacles or sources of discomfort. • Olberg identified four stages of culture shock : 1. An initial “honeymoon” period where the details of adapting to your new environment and the sense of novelty and adventure make for a generally positive experience. 2. A stage involving hostility and a variety of negative feelings (isolation, inadequacy) when you realize that your accustomed ways of doing things are not always adequate or understood. You will find yourself not understanding certain behaviors in the local culture, and find that some of your behaviors are misinterpreted. This stage (though some authors label this as a separate stage) also involves idealization of your home country and culture. 3. A stage of reconciliation where you slowly adapt to life in a new setting. 4. The final stage is labeled “acceptance of another way of life” where you accept the validity of both your culture and the culture of your host country. Dealing with Culture Shock • Your experience of culture shock will vary depending on you and your environment but it is quite normal; do not blame yourself or your environment for it. Differences in individual personality and in cultural and social backgrounds will lead people to experience culture shock differently. • Recognizing that you are experiencing culture shock and its stages is one effective way of dealing with this phenomenon. Though inevitable for many people, some simple yet effective short term strategies for dealing with culture shock include: for it. Differences in individual personality and in cultural and social backgrounds will lead people to experience culture shock differently. • Recognizing that you are experiencing culture shock and its stages is one effective way of dealing with this phenomenon. Though inevitable for many people, some simple yet effective short term strategies for dealing with culture shock include: ○ writing a journal ○ trying to maintain healthy eating, exercise, and sleeping habits ○ maintaining a sense of humor and realistic expectations ○ talking to friends • Also useful is this advice by the U.S. Department of State for U.S. officials moving abroad: ○ New places, with their sights, smells, and sounds, pack an emotional wallop. Finding new work, friends, and activities can take longer than expected. All of this, good and bad, equals stress, which can suppress your immune system and affect your health. ○ Many of us, when faced with stressful situations, seek “immediate comfort”: having a few drinks or eating sugar-arb foods. Instead, try some of the suggestions below. § Exercise (and be sure to stretch afterwards). § Eat nutritiously, drink plenty of clean water, and avoid caffeine, junk food, alcohol, and tobacco. § Get enough sleep and take plenty of breaks, doing things that you enjoy. § Enlist your old and new support network. § Use the move as an excuse to avoid people who ratchet up the tension. § Accept help. § Maintain your religious / spiritual practices. § Find safe ways to express your emotions. § Use classic stress reduction techniques such as deep breathing (repeating a positive phrase if helpful), meditating, listening to music, or going on walks. Adapting to Different Social Roles Importance of Understanding social roles and relationships • To successfully navigate other cultures, you need to understand how the expectations for people in these roles, which you learned as a child and may seem as totally “natural” to you, will differ cross -‐culturally and how any intercultural encounter will vary depending on what roles you and the other people have. Different roles will affect intercultural interactions in different ways. seem as totally “natural” to you, will differ cross -‐culturally and how any intercultural encounter will vary depending on what roles you and the other people have. Different roles will affect intercultural interactions in different ways. How you navigate a culture depends on your specific social roles and relationships • Navigating another culture is not just about learning basic beliefs and behaviors that are generally considered appropriate for that “culture” as a whole. It is also about knowing the variations in how these beliefs and behaviors among people with different social roles in that cultural setting. What is “culturally appropriate” behavior in any one place or setting can vary depending on the roles and relationships of the people involved. • Many people can identify with a “higher level” culture(s), such as nationality, but they are are rarely simply members of that higher level culture. People also usually have social roles in that culture –male, female, close family, friend, neighbor, old, young, rich, poor. Therefore, one important area to consider when navigating another culture has to do with understanding the various social roles and relationships in that society, and what are the expectations for these. Male and Female: Gender Roles • Anthropologists use the word genderto refer to the cultural expectations, roles, and statuses given to males and females. They distinguish this from biological sex, which is refers to the biological traits inherent to each of the two sexes (for example, men tend to be bigger). Most anthropologists argue that culture is an important factor in explaining differences in patterns of behavior (and roles, values, etc.) between men and women. • The key point is that how men and women are expected to behave and relate to each other will vary a lot cross culturally, and will almost always be a factor you need to consider when navigating another culture. • Variations in gender roles across cultures will affect your interactions with people in different cultures. The only thing you can be sure of is that gender roles are a key component in many societies. • There are two cautions you should use when assessing gender roles in other cultural settings: 1. Gender roles are changing in many parts of the world 2. That just because women seem “oppressed” from a Western perspective (e.g. women must wear veils) this does not necessarily mean they are oppressed within the framework of their own culture and society. Navigating gender roles in Saudi Arabia • The separation between the sexes in Saudi Arabia is so extreme that it is difficult to overstate. Saudi women may not drive, and they must wear black abayas and head coverings in public at all times. They are spirited around the society. Navigating gender roles in Saudi Arabia • The separation between the sexes in Saudi Arabia is so extreme that it is difficult to overstate. Saudi women may not drive, and they must wear black abayas and head coverings in public at all times. They are spirited around the city in cars with tinted windows, atte-snly schools and university departments, and eat in special “family” sections of cafes and restaurants, which are carefully partitioned from the sections used by single male diners. Advice for women travelers • Because of such things as machismo and restrictions on female behavior in some countries, female travelers should be aware of proper public behavior for women. Behaviors that a woman might think is normal in the United States, Canada, or Europe may be misinterpreted elsewhere. • Clothing that a woman might consider normal may be seen as inappropriate and/or sexually provocative where you go. Though you don’t need to “go native” you may find it useful to observe what women around you are wearing for some idea of what to wear in order not to bring too much attention to yourself. • Women traveling alone can expect to receive unwelcome attention and remarks, which are usually best ignored. In part because of exposure to movies and television, women perceived as being from the U.S. and certain European countries are sometimes seen as attractive, sexually open, desirable, and/or promiscuous. Be aware of how your behavior and dress may unintentionally perpetuate this stereotype and make you the subject of unwelcome advances. Race and ethnicity • Race and ethnicity are closely related words. Ethnicieyn ds to emphasize shared descent, but also shared culture, religion, language, and geographic origin. • The key aspect of ethnic identity is that it is defined in relation to other ethnic groups. What matters is not so much the specific components of ethnicity (your costumes, food, etc.) but rather that your ethnic group is separate from other ethnic groups. • Race, on the other hand, focuses on easily recognized physical characteristics which are translated into racial categories. Both race and ethnicity, however, are culturally constructed categorie . s • If you are a person of color be aware that discrimination and stereotypes about certain ethnic minorities may exist in certain locations, though often the focus is on minority groups relevant to that country’s history. You may find that “racial” terms or categories commonly used in the United States may not be used in other places, or that they may have different meanings. • If you are a person of color be aware that discrimination and stereotypes about certain ethnic minorities may exist in certain locations, though often the focus is on minority groups relevant to that country’s history. You may find that “racial” terms or categories commonly used in the United States may not be used in other places, or that they may have different meanings. Social class, status and other forms of social hierarchy • Status is the most general category, referring to, “The social honor or prestige that a particular group is accorded by other members of a society. Status groups normally display distinct styles of life -‐patterns of behavior that the members of the group follow. Status privilege may be positive or negative. • As one sociology textbook notes in this definition of class, “Although it is one of the most frequently used concepts in sociology, there is no clear agreement about how the notion should be defined. Most sociologists use the term to refer to socioeconomic variations between groups of individuals that create variation in their material prosperity and power.” • Some anthropologists focus more on the cultural dimensions of classsuch as the different types of fashions and behaviors associated with various social classes. • Another important consideration is that what is defined as proper behavior will be shaped by class and status. • U.S. views of class and status (overall) are quite unique . Although numerous social inequalities exist in the United States, people in the United States value the idea (or at least the appearance) ofegalitarianism : everybody has certain rights regardless of their status in society, and there should be no barriers to personal achievement based on talent and hard work. • In other countries, the boundaries between social classes may be more rigid (perhaps seen as more natural) and social inequalities may be more accepted. There may be an emphasis on maintaining and marking differences between people of different statuses. Bosses may expect to be called by their titles, may not delegate as much, and may not expect as much initiative or candid opinions from subordinates. Professors in other countries may view critical questions from students as disrespectful, and this is one of the factormany t leads Chinese international students in United States universities to have difficulties navigating U.S. college classroom culture. Strangers and Foreigners Attitudes to Strangers and Outsiders • In terms of navigating another culture, you will find that being a stranger can have positive and negative aspects. It can sometimes give you the benefit of a doubt. In other words, if you do something wrong, your status as a stranger can provide a convenient excuse. Another benefit is that as a stranger, you may play the role of the detached outsider, and people will tell you things they normally don’t tell people in their community. • In terms of navigating another culture, you will find that being a stranger can have positive and negative aspects. It can sometimes give you the benefit of a doubt. In other words, if you do something wrong, your status as a stranger can provide a convenient excuse. Another benefit is that as a stranger, you may play the role of the detached outsider, and people will tell you things they normally don’t tell people in their community. Attitude to Foreigners • For many cultural navigators, a key role of concern to them is their role as a foreigner in the locale they are visiting or living in. U.S. citizens will encounter a wide variety of attitudes towards them because of the dominant role of the United States in the world. As China becomes more economically influential around the world, attitudes towards China will become a factor for Chinese visitors to other parts of the world. • One thing is for sure: attitudes towards different nationalities are oftencontextualand are especially affected by current events. • People who face the challenge of navigating another culture in a different country should be aware of a few issues: ○ Any sentiments against your countrydo not always translate into sentiments and actions against people from your country (i.e. there is an awareness that the tourist does not necessarily represent the country’s government). ○ Depending on the situation, how you’re treated may have more to do with other contextual variables beyond or in addition to your nationality, such as who is around you, the setting, your appearance, occupation, status as a relatively wealthy tourist, gender, personality, etc. ○ Seeing media examples of sentiments against your country, or even personally experiencing one such incident should not lead to the creation of fallacious “inductive stereotypes”. Yes, you may be witnessing a social fact, but no, in most cases not everybody is connected to this phenomenon. Again, just because the U.S. candidate for Miss Universe was booed in Mexico should not detract from the fact that many U.S. visitors are warmly welcomed in Mexico, and from the general opinions that Mexicans have of the United States (mentioned in the article link above that you should have read by now). ○ However, do your research. Be aware that being perceived as a citizen of a certain country may lead to anti-‐X-‐country sentiments being expressed in front of you and they may even affect you (being insulted, for example). But, even if you are not personally affected, being informed about how your country is perceived where you go is useful. You may want to think of some diplomatic answers if confronted with critiques of the your government or