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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by NotetakerS on Wednesday December 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HDFS212 at Michigan State University taught by L. Gipson-Tansil in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Children, Youth, and Family in HDFS at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 12/16/15
Human Ecological Systems What is Human Ecology Human ecology is about the relationships between people and their environment 0 In human ecology the environment is perceived as an ecosystem Urie Bronfenbrenner19791986 Ecological Systems Theory 0 Child development involves interacting within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the environment 0 The environment is not a static force that uniformly affects individuals it is ever changing evolving The temporal dimension of this model is the chronosystem Bronfenbrenner39s Ecological Systems Theory aka Bioecological Systems Theory Bronfenbrenner is one of most widely studied ecological theorists He believed that o A child39s biological disposition and environmental forces come together to shape the child39s development 0 There are two environmental conditions necessary for human development 0 One or more adults must love child unconditionally 0 Adults must encourage child and spend time in joint activities with child in and out of home environment Brofenbrenner39s Systems Microsystems Nested environment where child is with parents teachers and anyone having most immediate effect on child Mesosystem Provides connections between child39s immediate settings and child39s surroundings home school neighborhood childcare center etc Exosystem Surrounds mesosystem and refers to social settings that affect child but do not include child for example parent39s workplace or health services in community does not cross child39s path directly 0 Macrosystem Outermost layer envelops microsystem mesosystem and exosystem and consists ofthings that influence and sometimes support child Ali39l39l ih onuirnnman39l 39Fnrnvamnla rlll39lIlrn nnrmc lauuc or VVILIIIII CIIVIIUIIIIICIIL IUI CAGIIIHIC DUILUIC IIUI IIIJ IGVVJ CLD Chronosystem Chronosystem chrono means time 0 The ch ronosystem refers to the sociohistorical conditions ofthe child 0 Environmentis everchanging Important life events change relationships Adaptations of Bronfenbrenner39s Theory 0 Theory has lent itself to many research discussions and evolving models 0 Following pages show several wellknown models offshoots of Bronfenbrenner39s original model and theory Human Ecological Model 0 Margaret Bubolz Professor Emeritus MSUFCE and MS Sontag took Bronfenbrenner39s theory but used family as unit of analysis and applied it as seen to right 0 Microsystem family 0 Mesosystem human built environment 0 Exosystem socialcultural environment 0 Macrosystem naturalphysical biological environment Human Ecological Model Bubolz amp Sontag 1993 0 Three basic premises 1 Families interact with their environment to form an ecosystem 2 Families carry out the following forthe good of itself as well as the good of society i Biological sustenance ii Economic maintenance iii Psychosocialand nurturance functions 3 All peoples ofthe world are interdependent on the resources of the earth There is a balance between i Cooperation and integration in the ecosystem ii With demands of the individual for autonomy and freedom UnderlyingValues Survival maintenance and sustainability are important features of life 0 Four great virtues that contribute to the quotultimate goodquot v v 0 Economic adequacy 0 Justice 0 Freedom 0 Peacefulness Other virtues that contribute to the quality of life 0 Health Education and learning Loving and nurturing relationships Productive work and work environments Experiences and symbolic systems that sustain meaning and a sense of community 0 Beauty 0 Trustworthiness Scholars and practitioners acting on these values are expected to attend to the problems ofgroups and subcultures who lack power self determination and access to resources Humans should be responsible to other living species and the nonliving environment 0000 Human Ecological Concepts 0 Human ecosystem 0 Interaction between humans and their natural environment including 39 Physicalbiological 39 Socialcultural 39 Humanbuilt Family ecosystem 0 Family system interacting with its environment 0 Environment 0 Totality of surroundings and context 0 Surroundings include I Physical biological social economic political aesthetic and structural Adaptation 0 Behavior of living systems including families that changes 39 The state or structure ofthe system I The environment 39 Or it can be both 0 Adaptation is recursive humans adapt to environment and change it Family Ecological Concepts Family 0 Inclusive definition 39 Includes persons related by blood marriage or adoption 39 Also includes sets of interdependent but independent persons who share common goals common resources and a commitment to each other 39 Family members are simultaneously autonomous and dependent Needs 0 Requirements for survival ex sustenance Values 0 Human conceptions about what is good right and worthwhileThey are an integral part of family processes Management 0 Comprehensive process to meet goals and realize values Decisionmaking 0 Central cybernetic control system of family organization 0 The decisionmaking process involves 39 Recognition of the need to make a decision 39 Identification evaluation and comparison of alternatives 39 Choice of alternative Human development 0 Ongoing process of interrelated change in ability to perceive conceptualize and act 0 Development is dynamic 0 Development usually leads to greater levels of sophistication Quality of human life 0 Extent to which basic needs are met and values realized synonymous with wellbeing Quality of environment 0 Capacity for supplying human and nonhuman resources 0 Capacity for sustaining life and the nonhuman environment