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This page Class Notes was uploaded by NotetakerS on Wednesday December 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HDFS212 at Michigan State University taught by L. Gipson-Tansil in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Children, Youth, and Family in HDFS at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 12/16/15
Human Development History Theory and Research Human Development 0 Human Development includes all changes experienced throughoutthelifespan The field of child development is 0 The study of all aspects of human growth and change from conception through adolescence It is a part ofhuman development 0 It is of both scientific and applied practical importance 0 An interdisciplinary field Periods of Development Prenatal Conception to Birth Infancy and Toddlerhood Birth to 2 years old Early Childhood 2 to 6 years old Middle Childhood 6to 11 years old Adolescence 11 to 18 years old Emerging Adulthood 18 to 25 years old Domains of Development Domain Changesin Physical Body size and proportions appearance 0 Function of body systems health Perceptual and motor capacities Brain development and physical health Cognitiv Thought processes and intellectual abilities including attention e memory academic and everyday knowledge problem solving imagination creativity and language Emotion Emotional communication al Selfunderstanding knowledge aboutothers o Infernprqnnal skills and relationshinq IIUVIIVVIUVIIVII Ul IIIU VIIle IVIUIUIVIIUIIIIVU Moral reasoning and behavior Three Basic Issues 1 Is development continuous or discontinuous 2 Is there one course ofdevelopment or many 3 Is nature or nurture more important in development Nature and Nurture Nature Nurture Inborn biologic givens Physical and social world 0 Based on genetic Influence biological and psychological inheritance development Historical Views of Childhood Medieval Era and Childhood to age 7 or 8 regarded as separate phase with Earlier special needs 16th Century Puritan quotchild depravityquot views punitiveness was the prevailing child rearing philosophy 17th Century John Locke quottabula rasaquot or quotblank slatequot view 18th Century Jean Jacques Rousseau quotnoble savagesquot view children have innate sense of right and wrong Early Scientific Study of Development Evolutionary Darwin39s ideas of natural selection and survival ofthe fittest are Theory still influential Normative Hall and Gessell Agerelated averages based on measurements of Approach large numbers of people to represent typical development Mental Testing Simon and Binet Early developers in intelligence tests Movement The PsychoanalyticTheories 1 Children move through a series of stages in which they confront conflicts between biological drives and social expectations 7 I Inml 39l39hou rncnlun 39l39hncn rnn Flirfc annrminnc ncurhnlnoirnl nrlil Icfmnnf A 3 IIUVV Lllby IMJUIVM Llleb DUIIIIIULJ UbIbl IIIIIIMJ PJYUIIUIUBIUUI UUJUJLIIIMIIL Two outstanding theorists Sigmund Freud 19561939on Psychoanalytical perspective and Erik Erikson 19021994 on Psychosocial perspective Freud39s Theory The healthy personality development is determined by how parents manage their child39s early sexual and aggressive drives Three parts of personality id ego and superego The relations between three determine an individual39s basic personality Freud39s five psychosexual stages 1 Oral birth to 1 year old Anal 1 to 3 years old Phallic 3 to 6 years old Latency 6 to 11 years old Genital adolescence U39lbUUN Freud39s Psychosexual Development Over the course of childhood sexual impulses shift focus from oral to anal and to genital regions ofthe body To advance to a subsequent stage a child needs to receive the correct amount of gratification Family relationships and early experiences are crucial to later development The theory was criticized for its overemphasis on sexuality and for being culturally specific to 19th century Victorian society Moreover he did not study children directly Erikson39s Theory Erikson expand Freud39s views and created his psychosocial theory that emphasized ego as positive force of development He recognized that normal development must be understood in relation to cultural context in which it occurs Erikson39s Psychosocial Stages Age Birth to 1 year old 1 to 3 years 3 to 6 years vs Basic trustvs mistrust Autonomy vs shame and doubt Initiative vs guilt 6 to 11 years Industry vs inferiority Adolescence Identity vs identity confusion Emerging Adulthood Intimacy vs isolation Adulthood Generativity vs stagnation Old age Integrity vs despair Piaget39s 1977 Cognitivedevelopment Theory 0 Development occurs in stages as children actively manipulate and explore the environment 0 Central to Piaget39s theory is the biological concept of adaptation A child39s mental structures adapt to understand the external world and to achieve a sense of mental balance or equilibrium Stage Age Description Sensorimotor Birth to 2 years Learn by exploration Preoperational 2 to 7 years Symbolic thought Concrete operational 7 to 11 years Reasoning becomes logical Formal operational 11 years and older Abstract thinking Recent Theoretical Perspectives Information processing Ethology and evolutionary developmental psychology Vygots ky39s sociocu ltu ral theory Ecological systems Information Processing 0 The human mind is viewed as a symbol manipulating system through which information flows 0 The theory also uses diagrams or flowcharts to map problem solving steps for task completion 0 Like Piaget39s theory this approach regards children as active beings who modify their thinking in response to the environment Unlike Piaget39s theory there are no stages ofdevelopment thnlnav quotquotquotV39Vb1 Ethology studies the survival value of behavior and its evolutionary history 0 Studies of imprinting among baby birds indicate that this follow behavior takes place during an early restricted period of development 0 These observations led to the concept of the critical period which refers to the limited period in which a child is biologically prepared to acquire certain adaptive behaviors if in an appropriately stimulating Bowlby used ethology to explain attachment in human beings Vygotsky39s Sociocultural Theory 0 Cross cultural and multicultural studies help to study GxE interactions to shape a human being Vygotsky viewed cognitive development as a socially mediated process in which children benefit from parental and peer support to accomplish new things 0 Transmission of culture to new generation 0 Beliefs customs skills 0 Social interaction necessary to learn culture 0 Cooperative dialogue with more knowledgeable members of society Studyingthe Child 0 Research begins with a prediction or hypothesis about behavior 0 Researchers must then decide on an overall plan research design for conducting specific activities research methods forwhich they need participants 0 An understanding of research strategies is importantfor separating dependable information from misleading results and is essential practical knowledge for those who work directly with children Common Methods of Gathering Information 1 Systematic observation 2 Selfreports 3 Psychophysiological methods 4 The clinical method or case study Systematic Observation N atu ralistic Observation Stru ctu red Observations In the quotfieldquot or natural environment 0 Laboratory situation set up to evoke where behavior happens behavior of interest 0 All participants have equal chance to display behavior Independent and Dependent Variables Independent Dependent Experimenter changes or 0 Experimenter measures but does not manipulates manipulate Expected to cause changes in 0 Expected to be influenced by the another variable independent variable Designs for Studying Development Designs Description Longitudinal Same participants studied repeatedly at different ages Crosssectional People of differing ages all studied at the same time LongitudinalCross Same groups of differentaged people studied repeatedly as sectional they change ages Microgenetic Same participant studied repeatedly over a short period as they master a task Children39s Research Rights 0 Protection from harm physical and psychological Informed consent for7 years and older child ren39s consent as well as parents39 consent PrivacyConfidentiality Knowledge of results Beneficial treatments Human Ecological Systems What is Human Ecology Human ecology is about the relationships between people and their environment 0 In human ecology the environment is perceived as an ecosystem Urie Bronfenbrenner19791986 Ecological Systems Theory 0 Child development involves interacting within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the environment 0 The environment is not a static force that uniformly affects individuals it is ever changing evolving The temporal dimension of this model is the chronosystem Bronfenbrenner39s Ecological Systems Theory aka Bioecological Systems Theory Bronfenbrenner is one of most widely studied ecological theorists He believed that o A child39s biological disposition and environmental forces come together to shape the child39s development 0 There are two environmental conditions necessary for human development 0 One or more adults must love child unconditionally 0 Adults must encourage child and spend time in joint activities with child in and out of home environment Brofenbrenner39s Systems Microsystems Nested environment where child is with parents teachers and anyone having most immediate effect on child Mesosystem Provides connections between child39s immediate settings and child39s surroundings home school neighborhood childcare center etc Exosystem Surrounds mesosystem and refers to social settings that affect child but do not include child for example parent39s workplace or health services in community does not cross child39s path directly 0 Macrosystem Outermost layer envelops microsystem mesosystem and exosystem and consists ofthings that influence and sometimes support child Ali39l39l ih onuirnnman39l 39Fnrnvamnla rlll39lIlrn nnrmc lauuc or VVILIIIII CIIVIIUIIIIICIIL IUI CAGIIIHIC DUILUIC IIUI IIIJ IGVVJ CLD Chronosystem Chronosystem chrono means time 0 The ch ronosystem refers to the sociohistorical conditions ofthe child 0 Environmentis everchanging Important life events change relationships Adaptations of Bronfenbrenner39s Theory 0 Theory has lent itself to many research discussions and evolving models 0 Following pages show several wellknown models offshoots of Bronfenbrenner39s original model and theory Human Ecological Model 0 Margaret Bubolz Professor Emeritus MSUFCE and MS Sontag took Bronfenbrenner39s theory but used family as unit of analysis and applied it as seen to right 0 Microsystem family 0 Mesosystem human built environment 0 Exosystem socialcultural environment 0 Macrosystem naturalphysical biological environment Human Ecological Model Bubolz amp Sontag 1993 0 Three basic premises 1 Families interact with their environment to form an ecosystem 2 Families carry out the following forthe good of itself as well as the good of society i Biological sustenance ii Economic maintenance iii Psychosocialand nurturance functions 3 All peoples ofthe world are interdependent on the resources of the earth There is a balance between i Cooperation and integration in the ecosystem ii With demands of the individual for autonomy and freedom UnderlyingValues Survival maintenance and sustainability are important features of life 0 Four great virtues that contribute to the quotultimate goodquot v v 0 Economic adequacy 0 Justice 0 Freedom 0 Peacefulness Other virtues that contribute to the quality of life 0 Health Education and learning Loving and nurturing relationships Productive work and work environments Experiences and symbolic systems that sustain meaning and a sense of community 0 Beauty 0 Trustworthiness Scholars and practitioners acting on these values are expected to attend to the problems ofgroups and subcultures who lack power self determination and access to resources Humans should be responsible to other living species and the nonliving environment 0000 Human Ecological Concepts 0 Human ecosystem 0 Interaction between humans and their natural environment including 39 Physicalbiological 39 Socialcultural 39 Humanbuilt Family ecosystem 0 Family system interacting with its environment 0 Environment 0 Totality of surroundings and context 0 Surroundings include I Physical biological social economic political aesthetic and structural Adaptation 0 Behavior of living systems including families that changes 39 The state or structure ofthe system I The environment 39 Or it can be both 0 Adaptation is recursive humans adapt to environment and change it Family Ecological Concepts Family 0 Inclusive definition 39 Includes persons related by blood marriage or adoption 39 Also includes sets of interdependent but independent persons who share common goals common resources and a commitment to each other 39 Family members are simultaneously autonomous and dependent Needs 0 Requirements for survival ex sustenance Values 0 Human conceptions about what is good right and worthwhileThey are an integral part of family processes Management 0 Comprehensive process to meet goals and realize values Decisionmaking 0 Central cybernetic control system of family organization 0 The decisionmaking process involves 39 Recognition of the need to make a decision 39 Identification evaluation and comparison of alternatives 39 Choice of alternative Human development 0 Ongoing process of interrelated change in ability to perceive conceptualize and act 0 Development is dynamic 0 Development usually leads to greater levels of sophistication Quality of human life 0 Extent to which basic needs are met and values realized synonymous with wellbeing Quality of environment 0 Capacity for supplying human and nonhuman resources 0 Capacity for sustaining life and the nonhuman environment Brain Development Brain Hardware Neuron 0 Cells of brain and nervous system designed to quickly send and receive signals Synapse 0 Small gaps between neurons that signals submit across 0 Glia 0 Cells that provide structure forthe brain and supportthe neurons Help manufacture myelin distribute nutrition minimize toxins and dispose of dead neurons Neurotransmitters 0 Chemical that assist in transfer of messages across synapsefrom one neuron to another Brain Function The early development of neurons is related to gene expression and regulation On overabundance of neurons and synapses are produced during early development At birth children have more synapses and neurons than the adult brain Pruning Neurons with axons that make the best connections that are active survive Brain Changes 0 Changes in the brain as a wholezthe brain increases weight from birth to aduhhood 1 At birth roughly 400 grams 2 11 months 850 grams 3 3 years old 1100 grams 4 Adulthood 1450 grams about3 pounds 0 Growth is due to increased size of neurons and increases in the number of axons and synapses as well as increase in glia tissues especially Myelin Synaptic connections are based on experience Quick Summary I Plouolnnmon39l39 n39F nDIIY nnC iC mainlu hDCDI I nn SOHO ovnroccinn an l roanla39l39inn v e ueveupet u memo s ay based w gene expmsswn aw egumuw mostly nature 0 Development and maturation of synaptic connections is dependent on neural activity and thus experience nurture Brain Changes and Cognitive Development 0 In general the bigger the brain ofspecies the more intelligent animals ofthat species are likely to be 0 Changes in the size structure and connection patterns of the brain during course of a child39s development profoundly contributeto change in the child39s thinking 0 These changes are both quantitative and qualitative quotUse it or Lose itquot 0 The brain operates on the quotuse it or lose itquot principle 0 Only those connections and pathways that are frequently used are retained Most of us keep enough synapses to do very well in life ex learning language quotPlasticityquot refers to the ability of growing nerve cells to choose many alternative routes and wiring connections as well as the ability of mature nerve cells to revise or alter their connections when appropriate 0 Physical exercise is one of the only things that has been shown in several studies to delay cognitive decline loss of connections associated with age Impact of Early Experiences on Brain Development 0 There is a strong relationship between brain size and early experiences 0 Children raised in environmentally deprived facilities such as the Romanian orphanages experience fewer sounds colors pictures interactions and sights Their brain is smaller than those of children who grow up in sensually rich environments with meaningful relationships 0 Abused and neglected children have brains that are 2030 smallerthan most children their age Use it or Lose it Language 0 At 3 months the brain has potential to distinguish several hundred spoken sounds Over the next few months the brain organizes itself to recognize only the sounds it hears During early childhood the brain retains its ability plasticity to discriminate sounds it has discarded ie not yet recognized Bottom Line Experience asa Determinant The experience that children have will determine which synapses are maintained and which ones are pruned Good experiences help any brain develop well 0 Thus in the brain as in behavior development involves a complex interplay of genetics and experiences At the Intersection ofNature and Nurture Gender 0 Men and women operate differently the brains of men and women are not identical 0 Men39s brains tend to be more lateralized that is the two hemispheres operate more independently during specific mental tasks like speaking or navigating around one39s environment while for same kinds of tasks females tend to use both of their cerebral hemispheres more equally o Males tend to have slightly larger brains Gender Differences Males tend to rely more on gray matter associated with information processing and women tend to use more white matter associated with making connections Males of all ages tend to perform better than females on tasks like mental rotation while females of all ages tend to perform better at certain verbal tasks and at identifying emotional expression in another person39s face Why Gender Differences Nature Testosterone 0 Studies find that preschool girls whose mother39s had higher levels of testosterone during their pregnancy tend to gravitate towards more quotbothtoy K 0 Preschool boys with high levels of testosterone are more aggressive in social interactions than boys with lower levels and girls Nurture 0 Parents attitudes about gender shape child ren39s attitudes One way this occurs is through how parents decorate their children39s room At the Intersection ofNature and Nurture Race and IQ Argues that o IQ is well measured and a good indicator of future outcomes 0 IQ is highly heritable and that race differences are largely genetic 0 Public policy initiatives and environmental context has little effect on IQ Race and Intelligence Nature vs Nurture Findings from a 2012 study 1 The importance of environmentfor IQ i Children who are adopted from working class to middle class homes gain between 1218 points in intelligence 2 Race differences i The IQ gap between WhiteCaucasian Americans and African Americans has declined 033 of standard deviation or about 5 points in recent years 0 We as scientists must be careful to consider context in our data as well At the Intersection of Nature and Nurture Gene effects 0 The case of the Serotonin transporter gene 5 HTTLPR and the dopamine processingability alleles 0 Ex Serotonin transporter short allele linked with depression anxiety and lower selfregulation Conclusions 0 Brain development is based on both genetic nature and environmental nurture factors 0 This suggests many many facets of development are amenable particularly early in childhood 0 However although the brain retains the ability to learn and make connections across the lifespan only connections that are used survive andthnve 0 We can have a huge impact on the development of the next generation by the policies we enact what we model and what we actively teach 10 Things Every Child Needs 1 Interaction Touch Stable relationship Safe healthy environment CoI39Foc1oom 11wa 10 SD9 NFDS JL II L JLL L III Quality care Communication Play Music Reading