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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by NotetakerS on Wednesday December 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HDFS212 at Michigan State University taught by L. Gipson-Tansil in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Children, Youth, and Family in HDFS at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 12/16/15
Importance of Family Dynamics in Development Family is a network of interdependent relationships each person influences the behavior of others in direct and indirect ways Development is shaped by the family focusing on structural aspects ex family stability divorce structure The development pathways are also considered directly or indirectly influenced by the parental characteristics or the family39s social background Think about Chronosystem in Brofenbrenner39s theory The interplay of forces within the family is dynamic and ever changing as each member adapts to the development of other members Family dynamics and development are interdependent Development also changes family and parent roles Observe the way parent relates to a tiny baby as he starts walking and talking Within a year the roles of parents change dramatically Eight Major Changes in Family Life overthe last 150 Years Dramatic decrease in twoparentfamily Decrease in family size as parents have few children Decrease in traditional nuclear family of 195039s quotbreadwinnerquot father and quothomemakerquot mother Decrease in residential fathers with yearround stable fulltime employment Increase in parent39s education level Increase in mother39s paid employment outside the home Increase in singleparent families mostly headed by women Increase in extent and severity of child poverty Diverse Family Structure 74 of families are married couples with one or two children 26 are singleparent families 22 headed by women 4 headed by men Samesex partners their children could be from previous marriage by adoption or by artificial insemination Fact vs Effect Fact About 50 of children growing up today will spend part of their childhood or adolescence in singleparent family F39F39Fnrf I I IMULE Contemporary Families Reflect increasing diversity in the United States 0 Face concerns stemmingfrom employment trends time pressures outside pressures such as television and the general social health ofthe country Child Centered Approach 0 Children39s wellbeing depends on 0 Quality of family interaction 0 Success and failures of parents 0 Training for handling complex parental task 0 Being a successful parent Dynamic Components of the Family 0 Energy 0 It is in manyforms we use in family but we also have energy component in relationships 0 As energy inputflows through the family it may in turn activate decision making process as its members process the transformations ofthe energy 0 Fueling like relaxing and taking rest helps to gain energy forfurther activity and decision making 0 Time 0 It is measured in terms ofsuccession or duration ofactivities 39 Past orientation looking back into past and use experiences 39 Present orientation importance of here and now 39 Future orientation anticipating imagining and planning SpaceBoundaries o For families the home represents a concrete physical space as well as an expression of psychological space 0 Individuals and families structure and regulate their interactions spatially 0 We allow some people to enter into our space and forsome it is not allowed Characteristics of Strong Families 0 Family cohesion Family adaptability Communication All ofthese are connected to one another Family Cohesion The emotional bonding that families have toward one another Boundariesspace time and energy affect the family cohesion Four levels of cohesion are 0 Disengaged gt separated gt connected gt enmeshed Family Adaptability The ability of a family system to change power structure role relationships and relationship rules in response to situational and developmental stress 0 Four levels ofadaptability include 0 Rigid gtstructured gtfexibe gt chaotic Family Communication 0 The facilitating dimension which is critical to the movement on the other two dimensions cohesion and adaptation Positive communication skills include empathy reflective listening and supportive comments 0 Negative communication skills include double messages criticism poor listening skills and use of sarcasm Family Influences on Development 0 Direct Mesosystem Twoperson relationships 0 Indirect ExosystemThird parties Adapting to change Macro and Chronosystem Changes from within and outside the family Pare nts39 Tasks Ensure the physical survival of the child Gratify needs 0 Teach good habits Provide enriching experiences to stimulate all facets of development The tasks change with different stages of development Parents39 General Goals for Children 0 Become members of their social group 0 Learn positive behaviorstay out of street use of polite language 0 Learn values and morals kindness and avoiding physical and psychological harm to others Different parents have different goals fortheir children Temperament and Attachment Introduction In child development two distinct approaches have made majorcontributions to identifying features of individuals which predict subsequent behavior Temperament and Attachment Theory What39s the Difference 0 Temperament constructs inherent Attachment constructs relational Former often precedes latter in development 0 However from a systems perspective development could be viewed as involving a continuous interplay between aspects of temperament and attachment Temperament Stable individual differences in 0 Quality and intensity of emotional reaction 0 Activity level 0 Attention o Emotionalselfregulation Child39s more enduring emotional mood disposition Used to describe one39s personality 0 ie cheerful easygoing hostile irritable shy extrovert Thomas and Chess 1956 0 Thomas and Chess 1956 initiated New York Longitudinal Study Results indicated that o Temperament is predictive of psychological adjustment 0 Parenting practices can modify children39s emotional styles Basic Patterns of Temperament Thomas and Chess 1977 1 The easy child 40 a Quickly establishes regular routines in infancy b Generally cheerful c Adapts easily to new experiences 1 TL ICCIJ III I4 nn A IHECIITTICUII CHIICI JU 7o a Irregular in daily routines b Slow to accept new experiences c Tends to react negatively and intensely 3 The slowtowarm up child 15 a Is inactive b Shows mild low key reactions to environmental stimuli C Is negative in mood and adjusts slowly to new experiences 4 Average blends ofthe basic a 3 characteristics 35 0 Dimensions ofTemperaments NYLS 0 Activity level Rhythmicity Distractibility Approachwithdraw Adaptability Attention span and persistence Intensity of reaction Threshold of responsiveness Quality of mood OOOOOOOO Te mpe rament Statistics 0 Easy going about 26 0 Slow to warm about 47 Difficult 7 Blend 29 and the 11 who could not come today Mary Robert39s 1981 0 Mary Robert showed overlapping dimensions ofThomas and Chess and other researchers She points out 3 underlying components of temperament 1 Emotion fearful distress irritable distress positive affect and soothability 2 Attention attention spanpersistence 3 Action activity level 0 These components form an integrated system of capacities and limitations Stability of Temperament an C39I39I rliac CI Innnr39l lnnnJorm CQkilil n39F 39lamnoramnn39l many statues suppu Hung Le stauty u tepeaet Yet stability of temperament is low to moderate Major reason temperament itself develops with age Longterm prediction from early temperament is best achieved from second year of life and after Changes shown by many children suggest that experience can modify biologically based temperament Genetics and Environment in Temperament Genetic Influences Environmental Influences Goodness of Fit Responsible forabout half of individual differences Ethnicity gender Cultural caregiving styles Boys and girls treated differently Parents emphasize sibling differences Combines genes and environment Temperament and Child Rearing The GoodnessofFit Model Depends on goodnessoffit Thomas and Chess 1977 0 Concept which describes relation between baby39s temperament and her social and environmental surroundings Goodnessoffit model explains how temperament and environment can together produce favorable outcomes 0 Involves creating childrearing environments that recognize each child39s temperament while encouraging more adaptive functioning The difficult child is less likely than easy child to receive sensitive care The difficult temperament type places children at risk for adjustment problems Care giving is notjust being responsive to child39s temperament also depends on life conditions and cultural values Attachment Theory The tendency to seek closeness to another person and feel secure when that person is present Strong affectionate tie we feel for special person in our lives that leads us to experience pleasure and joy when we interact with them and to be comforted by their nearness during times of stress lncnloll Aononnlon39lnn ca39llC39Far39llnn n Fln Fan f39c l llnn39or Llllman ln Fan lc ran alcn 39 IVULDUICIY UCHCIIUCIILUII DGLIDIGLLIUII UI IIIIGIIL D IIUIIECI I IUIIIGII IIIIGIILD ball GIDU become attached to people who do not feed them as well as to soft cuddly objects Ethological Theory John Bowl by 1969 0 Most widely accepted view of attachment 0 Strong innate basis for both infant and caregiver Precursors present at birth 0 A maturational development 0 Experience important but not all important 0 Selected for during evolution 4 Phases of Attachment Development 1 The preattachment phase a birth to 6 weeks 2 The quotattachment in the makingquot phase a 6 weeks to 68 months 3 The phase of quotclearcutquot attachment a 68 months 4 Formation of reciprocal relationship a 18 months to 2 years and on Attachment Develops through an Internal Working Model 0 Sets of expectations derived from 0 Early caregiving experiences concerning availability of attachmentfigures o Likelihood of providing support during times of stress 0 Self39s interaction with thosefigures Becomes guide for all future close relationships Measuring Security of Attachment 0 quotStrange situationquot Mary Ainsworth 1978 0 Procedure for measuring quality of attachment between 1 and 2 years of age 0 Involves short separationsfrom and reunions with the parent 0 Attachment QSort 90 descriptors of attachmentrelated behaviors is suitable for children between 1 and 5 years of age Categories of Attachment 0 Pattern A Insecu rely avoidant 0 Pattern B Securely attached 0 Pattern C Insecure resistant Pattern D Disorganizeddisoriented attachment Stability of Attachment 0 Quality of attachment is usually secure and stable for middleSES babies experiencing favorable life conditions 0 Infants who move from insecurity to security typically have welladjusted mothers with positive family and friendship ties For low SES families with many stresses and little support attachment status usually moves away from security or changes from one insecure pattern to another 0 Many children show shortterm instability in attachment quality Those with high longterm stability usually come from middleSES homes with stable family lives Cultural Variations Crosscultural evidence indicates that attachment patterns may have to be interpreted differentlyin other cultures 0 German parents encourage their infants to be independent which may explain why more German infants show avoidant attachment unable to feel close to others than American babies 0 Japanese infants display more resistant attachment responses Japanese mothers rarely leave their babies in the care of strange people which might cause the strange situation to be more stressful for these infants 0 The secure attachment pattern is the most common in all societies studied Factors Affecting Attachment Security Opportunity forattachment Quality of caregiving Infant characteristics 0 Family circumstances 0 Parents39 internal working model Attachment in Context Manyfactors influence the development of attachmentinfant and parent characteristics 0 Quality of the marital relationship Family stressors Social support Parents internal working models 0 Childcare arrangements 0 Attachment can only be fully understood within an ecological systems perspective OOO Attachment and Later Development 0 Continuity of caregiving determines whether attachment insecurity is linked to later development 0 A child whose parental caregiving improves or who has compensating affectional ties outside the immediate family can bounce back from adversity Effects of Securely Attached Child Substantial studies indicate that securely attached children 0 Develop more competent exploratory initiatives problem solving skills 0 Develop more successful close relationships with caregivers peers and other people 0 Are more enthusiastic cooperative and persistent