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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by NotetakerS on Wednesday December 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HDFS212 at Michigan State University taught by L. Gipson-Tansil in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Children, Youth, and Family in HDFS at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 12/16/15
Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood Stages of Cognitive Development Piaget SensorimotorBirthZyears o Learn by exploration Preoperational27years o Symbolic thought 0 Concrete operational 711 years o Reasoning becomes logical Formal operational 11 years o Abstractthinking Piaget39s Theory Achievements ofthe Concrete Operational Stage 0 Conservation Decentation Reversibility Classification skills Seriation Transitive inference Spatial reasoning Directions 0 Map Limitations of Concrete Operational Thought 0 Operations work best with objects that are concrete o Problems with abstract ideas 0 Horizontal Decalogue 0 Master concrete operational tasks gradually Further Research on Concrete Operations 0 Culture and schooling affect performance on tasks NeoPiagetians suggest information processing helps 0 Automatic cognitive schemes free up working memory 0 Spread from central conceptual structure to a wide range of situations Key Information Processing Improve me nts I CJ A J 0 Increase In Informationprocessmgcapacnty Gains in cognitive inhibition 0 Both may be related to brain development Attention in Middle Childhood Attention becomes more 0 Selective o Adaptable o Predictable Development of Attention Strategies 0 Production deficiency Control deficiency Utilization deficiency Effective strategy use All connected in a circle Stepsin Planning Postponing action to weigh alternatives Organizing task materials 0 Remembering steps of plan 0 Monitoring how well plan works 0 Revising if necessary Development of Memory Strategies Rehearsal early grade school 0 Organization soon after rehearsal 0 Knowledge base helps organization Elaboration end of middle childhood 0 Meaningfulchunksofinformation Schooling promotes using these memory strategies Promoting Cognitive Self Regulation 0 Point outspecial demands of tasks 0 Encourage use of strategies Emphasize value of selfcorrection Information Processing and Academic Learning Dean an towns o Wholelanguage approach 0 Basic skills approach 0 Mathematics 0 Drill o Numbersense Sternberg39sTriarchic Theory of Intelligence Successful Intelligence Analyticalintelligence 0 Apply strategies 0 Acquire taskrelevant and metacognitive knowledge 0 Engage in selfregulation Creative intelligence 0 Solve novel problems 0 Make processing skills automatic in free working memory for complex thinking 0 Practical intelligence 0 Adapt to shape andor select environments to meet both personal goals and the demands of the everyday world Analytical intelligence gt either creative intelligence or practical intelligence Gardner39s Multiple lntelligences Ungub c Logicomathematical Musical Spa al Bodilykinesthetic Naturalist Interpersonal Intrapersonal Explaining Differences in IQ Genetics 0 Accounts for about half of differences 0 Environment 0 SES 0 Culture 0 nmmlmirntinnchlpc V Vvl IIIIUIIIIUUBIVIIJB IUJ 0 Cultural bias in test content Children with Learning Difficulties Difficulties include o Mild mental retardation 0 Learning disabilities 510 of children 0 Law requires quotLeast restrictive placementquot 0 Mainstreaming 0 Full inclusion Gifted and Talented Children Gifted Talented Exceptional intellectual strength 0 Outstanding performancein a specific field 0 Usually measured by high IQ Measured by divergent thinking and creativity Physical Development in Middle Childhood Body Growth in Middle Childhood Slow regular pattern 0 Girls shorter and lighter until about age 9 0 Lower portion of body growing fastest Bones lengthen Muscles very flexible All permanentteeth arrive Heredity and environment play a role in growth Middle Childhood Growth Worldwide Shortest children South America Asia Pacific Islands parts of Africa Tallest children North and Central Europe Australia Canada US Secular trend in industrialized countries toward larger and heavier children Gender Differences Girls are shorter and lighter than boys until approximately age 9 0 Girls tend to have more bodyfat Boys are more muscular Secular Trends in Physical Growth 0 The changes in body size from one generation to the next have taken place in manyindustrialized nations 0 The larger size of modern children is mostly due to a faster rate of physical maturation Improved health and nutrition play major roles in the secular trend 0 Although secular gain in height has slowed in recent decades weight gain is continuing at a high rate Brain Development in Middle Childhood Myelination increases white matter in o Frontal lobes 0 Corpus callosum Children acquire complex abilities Neurotransmitters and hormones may affect cognition and behavior Common Health Problems in Middle Childhood Vision Myopia Hearing Otitis media middle ear infection 0 Malnutrition Obesity Bedwetting Illnesses Injuries Causes of Myopia Genetics 0 Myopia parents 0 Asian heritage Early biological trauma 0 Low birth weight 0 Experiences 0 Reading and close work 0 Computer use Nutrition Problems in Middle Childhood Little focus on eating 0 Fewer meals with family 0 Too few fruits and vegetables 0 Too manyfried foods and soft drinks 0 Poverty and lack of nutritional food Obesityin Children 0 15 of Canadian and 25 ofAmerican children sufferfrom obesity 0 Over 80 of obese youngsters remain overweight as adults Influences of Obesity in Middle Childhood Overweight parents 0 Early rapid growth or malnutrition 0 Low SES 0 Family eating habits Response to food cues Low physical activity 0 Television Health Risks for Obese Children 0 More likely to become overweight adults 0 Health risks 0 Blood pressure cholesterol Respiratory problems Diabetes Liver gall bladder Cancer 0 Joint problems 0 Physical risks 0 Feeling unattractive 0 Early puberty and sexual problems 0000 Consequences ofObesity Experience stereotyping and teasing Feel more depressed and display more behavior problems than normal weight age mates 0 The psychological consequences ofobesity combine with continuing discrimination to result in reduced life chances Illnesses in Middle Childhood More acute illnesses first two years of school 0 Exposure 0 Still development immunesystem Chronic Diseases 1520 0 Asthma 0 Severe illnesses 2 Accidents in Middle Childhood Most common types 0 Motorvehicle 0 Bicycle o Pedestrian Prevention 0 Teach safety 0 Model safe behavior Require helmets 0 Watch highrisk children more Motor Development in Middle Childhood Grow motorskills improvements 0 Flexibility 0 Balance 0 Agility 0 Force 0 Fine motor skill gains 0 Writing 0 Drawing Individual Differences in MotorSkills Body build 0 Sex 0 Family encouragement expectations SES 0 School and community lessons available Play and Development in Middle Childhood Childorganized games with rules 0 Sports 0 Invented games 0 Video games Adultorganized sports 0 Physical Education Providing Development Appropriate Sports 0 Build on children39s interests 0 Emphasize enjoyment 0 Let kids contribute Teach ageappropriateskills 0 Limit practices Discourage unhealthy competition 0 Focus on personal and team improvement Rough and Tumble Plav Friendly chasing and playfighting Common in many mammals and across cultures Peak in middle childhood Boys do more May help establish dominance hierarchy
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