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Week #7

by: NotetakerS

Week #7 HDFS212

GPA 4.0

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Lecture #7
Children, Youth, and Family
L. Gipson-Tansil
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by NotetakerS on Wednesday December 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HDFS212 at Michigan State University taught by L. Gipson-Tansil in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Children, Youth, and Family in HDFS at Michigan State University.


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Date Created: 12/16/15
Social  Development  in  Middle  Childhood Erickson's  Theory:  Industry  vs.  Inferiority Industry Inferiority • Developing  a  sense  of  competence  in • Pessimism  and  lack  of  ability  to  do   various  skills. things  well. • School  provides  many  opportunities. • Family  environment,  teacher  and   • Children  learn  the  value  of  division  opeers  can  contribute  to  negative   labor  and  develop  a  sense  of  moral feelings. commitment. Self-­‐Understanding  in  Middle  Childhood 1. Self-­‐Concept a. More  refined  me-­‐self  or  self-­‐concept.  Are  organizing  their  observations  of   behaviors  and  internal  states  into  general  dispositions. b. Social  comparisons  -­‐ school  children  make  social  comparisons  by  judging     their  appearance,  abilities,  and  behavior  in  relation  to  those  of  others. c. Emphasize  competencies-­‐  both  positive  and  negative. 2. Cognitive,  social,  and  cultural  inferences  on  self-­‐concept a. Cognitive  development  affects  the  structure  of  self-­‐concept. b. Social  and  cultural  development  affect  content  of  self -­‐concept.  The   changing  content  of  sel-­‐fconcept  is  a  product  of  both  cognitive  capacities   and  feedback  from  others. c. Real  self  vs.  ideal  self Self-­‐Esteem  in  Middle  Childhood • Hierarchically  Structured ○ Separated  areas  and  general  self -­‐esteem § By  age  7  to  8,  Western  children  have  formed  at  least  four  separate   self-­‐esteems:  academic  competence,  social  competence,   physical/athletic  competence,  and  physical  appearance   -­‐ that   become  more  distinct  with  age. § School-­‐age  children's  ability  to  view  themselves  in  terms  of  stable   dispositions  permits  them  to  combine  their  separate  self -­‐ evaluations  into  an  overall  sense eelsteem.   • Changes  in  levels  of  self-­‐esteem Self-­‐esteem  drops  during  the  first  few  years  of  elementary  school. ○ ○ From  fourth  to  sixth  grade,  self -­‐esteem  rises  for  the  majority  of  children. § School-­‐age  children's  ability  to  view  themselves  in  terms  of  stable   dispositions  permits  them  to  combine  their  separate  self -­‐ evaluations  into  an  overall  sense eelsteem.   • Changes  in  levels  of  self-­‐esteem ○ Self-­‐esteem  drops  during  the  first  few  years  of  elementary  school. ○ From  fourth  to  sixth  grade,  self -­‐esteem  rises  for  the  majority  of  children. Influences  on  Self-­‐Esteem • Culture • Child-­‐rearing  practices -­‐authoritative  parenting  styles  can  foster  chlfd's  se-­‐ esteem. • Messages  from  adults   • Attributions: ○ Mastery-­‐oriented ○ Learned  helplessness Attribution  Theory • Fritz  Heider  (1958)  first  proposed  attribution  theory.  He  referred  to  this  theory   as  "naïve"  theory. • Attribution  theory  >  describes  processes  of  explaining  events  >  behavioral  and   emotional  consequences  of  those  explanations. • Purpose  of  the  theory: ○ Talk  about  how  people  make  casual  explanations.  How  they  answer   questions  begins  with  "why?" ○ For  example,  if  a  student  fails  a  test,  does  he/she  have  low  ability  or  is  the   test  difficult? Achievement-­‐Related  Attributions Mastery-­‐Oriented Learned  Helplessness • Attribute  success  to  ability • Attribute  failure  to  ability • Incremental  view  of  ability   -­‐can  improve  by  trying• Fixed  view  of  ability • Focus  on  learning  goals -­Cannot  be  changed • Focus  on  performance  goals


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