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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by NotetakerS on Wednesday December 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HDFS212 at Michigan State University taught by L. Gipson-Tansil in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Children, Youth, and Family in HDFS at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 12/16/15
Vocational Issues in School Adolescents and Work Adolescent work activities occur in various contexts 0 Home 0 School volunteer settings 0 As well as in paidjobs Data from the Committee on the Health and Safety Implications of Child labor 1998 reveals o The majority an estimated 8090 ofadolescents are employed at some point during high school Common sectors of work foryoung people the retail service sectors ofthe economy and agriculture According to the 1996 Current Population Survey approximately 52 of youth ages 1517 work in the retail sector employed in department stores grocery stores restaurants and retail stores and 26 are employed in the service sector working in education recreation health services and private households Approximately 8 of 1517 yearolds are employed in the agriculture workforce As adolescents age their likelihood of employment as well as the hours andor intensity of paid work increases Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health reveal 0 Approximately 46 of 12th graders averaged 20 or more hours of employment per week during the school year compared to just 9 of employed 9th graders 0 Boys typically average more hours of paid work than do girls especially in the later years of high school 0 Youth average more hours of work during the months ofsummervacation than duringthe schoolyear Effects of Adolescent Employment 1 Paid work may limit time forgood leisure schoolrelated and unpaid volunteer activities Younger workers spend less time doing homework Younger workers are more likely to come to schooltired and unprepared than other students Alnrli n n I n I IIln m39nl Innr nmn mnrn quotVquot39I nf l n IlnoIrl IF39I39I Irnnl Iniol Irn hiliino quotl39 VVUI ll l8 YUULII Illay UCLUIIIC IIIUI C CILLI CILLCU LU UI IDLI ULLUI CU ICIDUI C CILLIVILICD such as going to parties with friends using drugs and alcohol and cruising around in cars since these activities may be more compatible with their work schedules 5 The number of work hours during adolescence is found to be positively associated with delinquency substance use and sexual activity 3 Major Theories of Career Development 1 Ginzberg39s Developmental Theory 2 Super39s SelfConcept Theory 3 Holland39s Personality Type Theory Phrases of Vocational Development Ginzberg39s Theory 1 Fantasy Period a Early and middle childhood b Fantasize about careers 2 Tentative Period a Ages 11 to 16 b Evaluate interests abilities and values 3 Realistic Period a Late adolescence to adulthood b Explore careers and crystallize category Super39s SelfConcept Theory 1 Crystallization Specification Implementation Stabilization Consolidation U39lbUUN Factors Influencing Vocational Choice 0 Family influences Personality Teachers 0 Gender stereotypes Access to vocational information Holland39s Personality Types Investigative Social Realistic Artistic Conven onal Enterprising Vocational Preparation of NonCollege Bound 20 US 15 Canadian high school graduates do not continue Many have limited job options Often poorly prepared lack vocational training 0 Low level high schooljobs Europe has model vocational training Reasons why people choose the careers that they do 1 U39lbUUN Some choose an occupation because their parents expect them to do that certain career Some choose to follow a family pattern Some choose the occupation as a means to raise the family39s social status Some choose it because their parents opposea particular occupation Some choosea career for the learning opportunities and the popularity it may bring When Choosing a Career Assess yourskills Assess yourtalents Assess youraptitudes Learn about the advantages and disadvantages of these possible choices Choosea career that will make you happy interested and satisfied The Herrmann Occupational Profile LeftBrain Oriented RightBrain Oriented Planners Policymakers Lawyers 0 Artists 0 Editors Poets Technologists Sculptors 0 Writers 0 Politicians Bookkeepers Playwrights Frifire Icirianc bl ILILD Management Scientists Administrators Doctors Authors Tax experts Researchers Philosophers Architects Clowns Ca rtoonists Entrepreneurs Dancers Risk and Resilience in Emerging Adulthood Challenges in Young Adulthood Th rough experimentation young people often encounter disappointments in love and work that cause them to adjust their life path Vigorous exploration also increases risks such as unprotected sexual activity substance abuse and hazardous driving Through frequent moves emerging adults spend a great deal of time alone and are at risk for loneliness Turning Points in Young Adulthood Young people with more access to social support are more resilient and make a smoothertransition to adulthood quotResiliencequot refers to having good outcomes despite serious threats to healthy development Resilience can be facilitated notjust by reducing the level of risk but also by promoting competence and strengthening assets The Functions of Resilience Many psychologists propose that resilience should be seen as a function of developmental experiences that are grounded in a community context The community should be able to offerthe relationships resources and commitment needed to provide the kinds of supports and developmental experiences that produce resilient youth Factors Associated with Resilience and Positive Outcomes 1 Stable positive relationships with at least one caring adulthood 2 Religious and spiritual anchors 3 High realistic academic expectations and adequate support 4 Positive family environment 5 Emotional intelligence and ability to cope with stress lst Factor Numerous studies have found that the presence of an adult a parent or someone other than a parent with a strong emotional attachment to the child is associated with resilience Thic might ha 2 39l39nnrhnr nr rnarh 2n nvfnnrlnrl 39Familu mnmhnr nr 2 mnnfnr IIIIJ IIIIBIIL u LMUUIIMI UI UUUUI I UII MALMIIUMU IUIIIIIy III IIIIJ I UI u IIILIILUI such as thosefound in the Big BrothersBig Sisters Program 2nd Factor 0 A sense of meaning is one ofthe major pathways through which violent youth find their way to a constructive future with religious and spiritual institutions and practices being important vehicles for developing a sense of meaning for these youth 3rd Factor 0 Schools that provide students with a sense ofshared cooperative responsibility and belonging convey high expectations for participation and provide high levels ofindividual support for students tend to enhance resilience 4th Factor 0 A warm nurturing parenting style with both clear limit setting and respect for the growing autonomy of adolescents appears to be associated with resilience in adolescents Strong positive motheradolescent relations have also been found to be associated with resilience among youth when fathers are absent from the home 5th Factor 0 Although intelligence per se has been reported to be associated with resilience the factors that may be more important because they are more amenable to change and are also involved in resilience are emotional intelligence and the ability to cope with stress