Week 8; Day 22-24 - Chapter 9 + 16
Week 8; Day 22-24 - Chapter 9 + 16 Biology 233
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Becca LeBoeuf on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 233 at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh taught by Teri Shors in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Microbiology survey in Biology at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
Week 8 Exam 2 April 6! MAKE SURE YOU READ THE BOXES FOR EACH CHAPTER (8, 9, + 16). Also study what was done in lab. Read the article on Elizabethkingia. Day 22: We watched a movie; no chapter notes were taken. Notes from the movie are on a separate document. Day 23: Microbes In The News Elizabethkingia Reported In Winnebago County: ● 59 cases to date. ● 17 deaths. ● First Winnebago city case (SE WI has been hit with majority of cases). ● Causes bloodstream infection. ● Fever, shortness of breath, chills, cellulitis. Three G+ Infections You Should Know: ● Clostridium botulinum. *NEED TO KNOW* ○ Causes botulism; rare in U.S. ○ Produces neurotoxins; also used as botox; can cause botulism related to making pruna. ○ Most common cases in the U.S. are infant botulism (don’t give infants and toddlers honey). ● Clostridium tetani. *NEED TO KNOW* ○ Produces neurotoxins. ○ Causes lockjaw and muscle stiffness. ● Bacillus cereus. ○ Intoxication; causes Chinese restaurant syndrome. ● All three of these are treatable. START OF GRAM NEGATIVE: Foodborne and Waterborne Infection: ● Salmonellosis is caused by several species bacilli (rodin the genus Salmonella. ○ Symptoms: gastroenteritis, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, and possible fever. ● Salmonella enteritidisinfects eggs (the ovaries of healthy hens are infected). ● Salmonell may also contaminate meats, seafood, and fresh fruits and vegetables. ● Iguanas, lizards, snakes, and turtles are carrier almonelspecies. ● Crows may harboSalmonellin their feces. ● Salmonelltyph causesyphoidever ○ Typhoid occurs primarily in lessdeveloped countries. ○ Infection is from fecallycontaminated food or hands. ○ Transmission by flies and fomites is also common. ○ The organism invades the cells lining the small intestines, causing ulcers and bloody stools, fever, and possibly delirium. ■ Typhoidary was a healthy carrier. ■ 47 cases; 3 died. ● Shigellos is caused by speciehigel, aG bacillus (r. ) ○ Symptoms: gastroenteriand possibysenter ■ Severe diarrhea containing blood and mucus. ■ Resulting in dehydration; which can be deadly. ○ Sources: eggs, shellfish, dairy products, vegetables, water. ○ Transmission via the fecaloral route, infectious dose (ID) is very low (KNOW THIS FOR EXAM). ● Treatment involves oral or IV rehydration and possibly antibiotics. ● About one million annual deaths in developing countries. ● Day care centers are prone to outbreaks. ● Cholerintoxication is caused by the exotoxin sec (curved roVibrio cholera ○ Consuming fecallycontaminated water or food (including raw shellfish) causes infection. ○ Pandemicsdocumented over the centuries. ○ Characteristic of cholera is a vicewater diarr. a ○ Rehydration must be instituted quickly to avert death. ■ Oral rehydration thercan save lives. ● REVIEW TABLE 09.01. ○ Know: ■ Botulism. ■ Salmonellosis. ■ Cholera. ■ Typhoid Fever. ■ Sclerosis. Poverty, overcrowding, and poor sanitation favor the emergence and dissemination of cholera. Foodborne and Waterborne Infection: ● E. co 0157:H7enterohemorrhagicE. coli). ○ Contaminates rare meat, particularly hamburgers, also fresh spinach, sprouts, etc. ○ Hemolytic uremic syndrommay result in death in children under age five (KIDNEY FAILURE) ● Enterotoxigen E. cois the most common causetraveler’s diarr ea. ○ E. co is easy to culture and detect; its presence is used as an indicator of fecal contamination. ● Campylobacteriosi is caused burvedG bacilluCampylobacterjejun. ○ The most frequent cause of bacterial diarrhea in the United States. ○ Poultry, cattle, and unpasteurized milk have been identified as potential sources. ○ In 1998, it was reported that 70% of supermarket chicken was contaminated with Campylobacte . ○ Many isolates are antibiotic resistant. MORE GRAM POSITIVE: ● Listerios is caused by + bacillListerimonocytogenes. ○ This organism is distributed worldwide. ○ Contaminated cold cuts, hot dogs, soft cheeses, etc. ○ Grows under refrigeration. ○ Listeriosis is usually mild in healthy adults and children. ■ Infants, the elderly, the immunocompromised, and pregnant women are at high risk. ■ Fetuses and newborns may become acutely ill from their infected mothers. ■ Antibiotics must be given promptly to prevent infection and miscarriage of a fetus. ● TABLE 09.05 Listeria recalls and outbreaks. ● Pseudomembranous colitis caused by+, spore forming bacil Clostridium diffic.*NEED TO KNOW* ● Transmission is via fecaloral route. ○ A major cause nosocomial infecti n. ○ Associated with hospital patients on antibiotics. ○ Depletion of the normal flora by the use of antibio. diffto e w C “grow out,” usually causing mild to severe diarrhea. REVIEW NOTES ON POPPING FROZEN POOP PILLS. Airborne Diseases: Upper Respiratory Tract Infections: ● Whooping cough is caused by t coccobacill Bordetellpertussi ○ Humans are the only reservoir; there is a particular threat to children under age 4. ○ Transmission via contaminated droplets (talking, coughing, sneezing, and laughing). ○ Bacilli bind to ciliated epithelial cells in upper respiratory tract. ■ Exotoxin damages ciliated cells which function to clear mucus from air passages. ■ Triggers deep and rapid inspirations choop.” ○ Is consideredreemerging disease ○ B. pertuss iendemic to the United States. ■ Epidemics occur every 35 years. ● Streptococcus is a large genu+ cocci IN CHAINS the most virulet. s S pyogenes; infections range from mild to deadly. ○ Streptococci reside in the human nose and throat. ○ Transmitted by respiratory droplets or contact with sores or wounds. ○ Streptococcapharyngiti(tonsillitis) is common in children 515. ○ Longterm complications from repeated childhood strep infections. ■ Glomerulonephritis a kidney disease. ■ Rheumatic fever, a condition involving the heart and joints. ○ Streptococcaoxic shock syndromeand ecrotizing fasci are caused by invasive strep that cause lifethreatening infections. ● Erythrogenictoxin producing straintreptococcus pyogenescausescarlet fever and a characteristrawberry tongue NOT ON TEST ● Staphylococcus is G+ cocci in GRAPE LIKE CLUSTERS. Helps with identification. Invasiv S. pyogene can cause the life threatecrotizing fasci. is ● Toxins made by the bacteria can cause tissue to die. ○ Rare (650 to 800 cases annually in the United States). ○ Not contagious (persontoperson). ○ Treatment: antibiotics, skin grafts, amputations, hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Other bacteria can cause life threecrotizing fascii is. ● Toxins made by the following bacteria can cause tissue to die. ○ Klebsiella. ○ Clostridium. ○ E. coli. ○ Staphylococcus aureus. ○ Aeromonas hydrophila. ● 2012 cases in the news. Upper Respiratory Tract Infections: ● Meningiti is an inflammation of the meninges. ○ Early diagnosis is essential; coldlike symptoms progress quickly to fever, possibly delirium, and stiffness in the neck and back. ○ The two most common causes are: ■ Neisseria meningitid a G diplococcu ● Meningococcemia, responds to antibiotic therapy. ● A vaccine is available for epidemics. ● College students living in dormitories appear to be particularly susceptible to meningococcal meningitis. Day 24: Chapter 16 page: 484493 (REVIEW FOR EXAM). Lower Respiratory Tract Infections: ● Tuberculosis is caused by the tubercle bacillus. ○ Mycobacterium uberculosi ■ An ancient disease, tuberculosis remains the leading cause of infectious death worldwide. ■ About ten million people are infected (most are in the developing world), with an annual death toll of two million. ■ About eight million new cases develop annually. ■ Tuberculosis is made even worseultiplying drug resistant str ns. ● Tuberculosis: ○ Mycobacterium uberculosiis the cause of tuberculosis (TB). ○ TB is the leading cause of death worldwide. ○ In the U.S. and other developed countries it is a reemerging disease. ○ Evidence of TB dates back to 4,000 B.C. in Egypt. ○ TB was once the leading cause of death in the U.S. and other countries. ○ TB “sanatoria” treated TB with fresh air, bed rest, and good nutrition. ○ TB declined as social conditions improved in the early 1900s. ○ Antibiotics further pushed TB incidence back. ○ Isoniazid is used to treat TB, even to this day. ● Current Status: ○ In 1993, the WHO declared TB lobamergency. ○ The number of TB has been falling since 2006. ○ Asian Africa has the most cases of TB. TB The Disease: ● Transmission of bacilli is usually by droplets sprayed into the air by TBinfected individuals coughing, sneezing, singing, talking, etc. ○ A waxy outer coat protects the bacilli from drying, ● The first exposure results in a primary infection (asymptomatic). ○ In most cases the primary infection is in the lungs. ○ Infection can occur in the skin, brain, spinal cord, kidney, and bone. ● Immune cells wall off the bacranulomas 90% of the time; in 10% of cases the bacilli escape. ● Without treatment, it could take up to 2 years for the infection to die off. ● Clinical Signs And Symptoms: ○ Weight loss. ○ Cough. ○ Fatigue. ○ Night Sweats. ○ LowGrade Fever. ● Can be diagnosed by xray and skin test. ● The Skin Test: a minute amount of purified protein derivative (PPD) is injected and the site is examined after 4872 hours; a red, raised lesion 5 mm or more in diameter constitutes a positive test. ● The Chest XRay: If you have the infection, the chest xray will show cloudiness. Antibiotic Therapy: ● For TB infection, isoniazid for 6 months is completely effective. ● Active TB Disease Requires: ○ Taking a combination of antibiotics for 6 to 9 months. ○ Supportive measures of adequate rest, a good diet, etc. ● Five Antibiotics Are Particularly Effective Against The Tubercle Bacilli: ○ Isoniazid, ethambutol, rifampin, streptomycin, and pyrazinamide. ○ Toxicity and antibiotic resistance must be considered. ● Noncompliance is a serious problem, and remains problematic even if antibiotics are provided for free. ○ 25% of the homeless in London and San Francisco are infected by TB. ○ Supplying infected individuals with takehome drugs has been unsuccessful, as antibiotics were taken haphazardly. ○ Can foster the development of multiple drug resistant strains. DOTS : ● Direct Observational Therapy Short Course (DOTS). ○ Adopted by the WHO in 1992 to combat noncompliance and complacency. ○ It has saved lives and reduced emergence of drugresistance. ○ DOTS requires microscopy, drug supplies, direct observation, and surveillance and monitoring. ○ Once TB is found in sputum, health workers must watch the patient swallow the full course of the prescribed antiTB veryday. ■ Sputum is retested after 2 months and again at 68 months of treatment. ■ Within the first 24 weeks, patients become noninfectious. ■ DOTS is costeffective and has curerates of 8590% in China, Bangladesh, Peru, and even New York City. Factors Contributing To Reemergence: ● A 20% Increase In TB Occurred From 1985 To 1992 In The U.S. Due To: ○ TB and HIV Coinfection (each accelerates the other’s progress). ■ Those infected by HIV 00times more likely to develop active TB. ■ TB is the leading cause of death in HIVinfected populations. Sunny View Sanatorium Winnebago County: ● Opened: 1915. ● For all classes of cases. ● Capacity: 44. ● Rates: ○ $10 per week to resident patients. ○ $12 per week to nonresidents. ● SuperintendentMiss Helen Scheller. ● Medical Director: Dr. J.E. Schein. ● Application was made to the superintendent. Other Wisconsin Sanitariums: ● Madison, WI. ● Sanitarium Hill, 1202 Northport Drive. ● Was Lakeview Sanitarium 19301966. ● Contains 48 acre woods. ● Cemetary. ● Treatment center for most severe cases of TB. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (OR INFECTIONS; STIs): ● STDs (STIs) are transmitted by sexual contact; they continue to be a serious public health problem due to the emergence of antibiotic resistant strains and the AIDS virus (HIV). ● Syphili is caused by tG spirocheTreponema allidu. ○ It frequently is found as a coinfection with other STDs, including AIDS. ○ Humans are the only known reservoirs, there is no vaccine. ○ Most U.S. cases are in the 2939 year old group; men who have sex with men accounted for about two thirds of cases. ○ Spirochetes can pass across the placenta, resongenital syphil s; stillbirths and deformities are possible. ● Syphilis progresses through a series of three stages: ○ The Primary Stag is marked by a painchancre(sore). ○ The Secondary Stage is systemic, a rash dispersed on the body, but characteristically includalms andoles ○ A third of those untreated progtertia syphilis, which can develop over the next 40 years (during which the cardiovascular and nervous systems, especially, show degenerative changes). ■ Neurosyphili can result in paralysis (paresis), and insanity. ■ Gummas , tumor like lesions, may develop. ● Gonorrhea, or the “clap,” is caueeisseria gonorrhoe aG diplococcus (two cocci togethe; like syphilis, humans are the only reservoir. ○ Second only to chlamydia, infection rate highest in sexually active teens and young adults. ○ May be transmitted via vaginal, oral, or anal sex. ○ Pili adhesions (not on exallow firm attachment to mucosal surfaces. ○ In males a purulent discharge from the penis and burning during urination is common. ● Gonorrhea (2nd most common, chlamydia is number 1is associated with many complications. ○ Asymptomatic males, but particularly women, can carry and transmit gonorrhea for up to 10 years. ○ Pelvic inflammatory disea(PID) occurs in about 50% of untreated females causing abdominal pain and possible sterility. ○ Antibiotic resistance has jumped from less than 1% to over 13% of strains isolated in recent years. ○ Can be transmitted into the eyes of newborns during delivery, resulting the conditioophthalmia neonatorum. ● Chlamydia, is caused Chlamydia trachomatis aG coccobacillu it is the most common STD. ○ Chlamydia areobligate intracellular par ites. ○ It is most prevalent in sexually active young adults and teens. ○ 70% of female and 30% of male infectiosymptomatic. ○ Males are subject to inflammation of the testes and infertility. ○ Females have the most complications, including pelvic inflammatory disease, abnormal pregnancy, and infertility. ○ As in gonorrhea, newborns whose mothers are infected have a 5050 chance of developing an eye infection; therefore antibiotics are administered at birth, by law. ○ Most common STD (STI), but is the most unknown/unaware.