Week Eight Psy 246
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by KatieAlbritton on Thursday December 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 246 at University of North Carolina - Wilmington taught by Dr. Ingram in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Personality in Psychlogy at University of North Carolina - Wilmington.
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Date Created: 12/17/15
Week Eight Burrhus Frederic B F Skinner Katie Albritton Study Soup B F Skinner Operant Psychology Concept of personality unnecessary Overt behavior can be comprehended in terms of responses to factors in the environment Spontaneous responses No stimulus necessary Consequences of behavior are reinforcing So we repeat the behavior The idea of personality is unnecessary in order to understand human behavior Behaviorism Learning The change of behavior as a function of experience Behaviorism Your behavior is a direct result of your environment particularly the rewards and punishments that the environment provides Operant Conditioning Changing behavior with rewards punishment Reinforcement Increases the probability that a response will be repeated Not all reinforcers work for everyone Only way to know if it is reinforcing is if it increase the behavior Positive reinforcement The presentation of a desirable item to increase behavior Negative reinforcement The removal of an unpleasant stimulus such as pain that increases behavior Punishment An event that decreases the probability of a behavior Does not work as well shortterm Negative punishment Removable of a desirable conditioning Positive punishment The presentation of an unpleasant condition such as pain Neal Miller and John Dollard Explanation works for animals but people are more complicated Drives A strong stimulation an urge a need that produces discomfort We make a response that removes the discomfort This is drive reduction Reinforcing so we repeat the behavior This is learning Two types of drives Primary drives Needed for survival Hunger thirst sleep Secondary drives Elaborations of primary drives The things we do to satisfy the primary drives Plan meals grocery shop make the bed Types of Reinforcers Primary reinforcers Meet primary biological needs Are reinforcing for almost everyone Secondary reinforcers Are effective because they have become associated with primary reinforcers Money and school grades Bartering tools Frustration Due to inability to reduce a drive because the response is blocked Incomplete response occurring at same time Arthur Staats Emotional Repetoire Language cognitive Emotional and Motivational Sensorymotor Psychological behaviorism Walter Mischel 930present Behavioral specificity Cognitiveaffective personality system CAPS Behavioral signature Delay of Gratification The idea that you can deny immediate pleasure to achieve a longterm gain Ability to delay gratification predicts Better SAT scores Lower likelihood of being overweight Lower likelihood of using drugs Sex Differences Males and females that are good at delaying gratification Re ective planful reasonable emotionally stable Males not as good at it as females Males who delay well are Shy quiet compliant anxious Women who delay well are Intelligent competent attentive resourceful Relation to type of environment Yes Predictability of environment Less predictable less delay of gratification Reliability of the situation Philip Zimbardo Expert witness during Abu Ghraib trial How do situations interact Psychology of evil World full of good and evil The Lucifer Effect Evil as exercise of power Intentionality What is responsible Dispositional What is inside the person Situational External around them Systematic Legal cultural educational background Willingness of people to blindly obey authority Stanford Prison Study Anonymous Diffusion of personal responsibility Banality of heroism Ordinary people doing good deeds Socioeconomic vs egocentric The Situationist View People are free to do what they want Everyone is equal and differences are functions of situations Situations is all powerful and nothing we do is our fault Trait View Behavior is determined by personality People can develop consistent identities and styles that allow them to be themselves across situations It depends Both contribute to your behavior Personality and situation interact The effect of a personality trait may depend on the situation The situation may depend on your traits Flexibility One of the keys to a psychologically healthy life Degree matters You don39t want to be so exible as to be totally inconsistent Flexible enough to respond adaptively to situations